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United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing


In the United States, the "Triple Crown" is usually the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, a series of three Thoroughbred horse races for three-year-old horses run in May and early June of each year consisting of the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes.

While Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton is commonly credited with originating the term to reference these races in 1930, they were referred to by that name at least as early as 1923.[1]

Only eleven horses have ever won the Triple Crown, none since 1978. In 1973, Secretariat established the largest margin of victory in the history of American Grade 1 stakes races with a 31 length win. Of the trainers of those eleven horses, Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons won the Triple Crown twice (the only trainer to do so), and an eleventh trainer, D. Wayne Lukas, scored a Triple Crown as a trainer in sweeping the 1995 races with different horses, the only individual in the Triple Crown to do so. Ten jockeys have won the Triple Crown.

File:Secretariat the belmont.jpg
Secretariat en route to clinching the 1973 Triple Crown by winning the Belmont Stakes by 31 lengths in
World Record time

The three American Classic Races are collectively known as the U.S. Triple Crown. As of the completion of the 2008 season, the races have attracted 3,889 entrants (a figure that counts a given horse twice if it enters two of the races). Of these, 274 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 50 horses have won two of the races (21 the Derby & Preakness, 18 the Preakness & Belmont, and 11 the Derby & Belmont), and 11 horses have won all three races. The 11 Triple Crown winners are Sir Barton (1919), Gallant Fox (1930), Omaha (1935), War Admiral (1937), Whirlaway (1941), Count Fleet (1943), Assault (1946), Citation (1948), Secretariat (1973), Seattle Slew (1977), and Affirmed (1978).

Contents

Overview

Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes, and then the Belmont Stakes. Prior to 1931, the Preakness Stakes was run before the Kentucky Derby eleven times. On May 12, 1917 and again on May 13, 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day.

Race

Date

Current Track

Location

Distance

Inaugurated

Kentucky Derby First Saturday in May Churchill Downs Louisville, Kentucky 1 1/4 miles (2,012 m) 1875
Preakness Stakes Third Saturday in May Pimlico Race Course Baltimore, Maryland 1 3/16 miles (1,911 m) 1873
Belmont Stakes Third Saturday following the Preakness (first or second Saturday in June) Belmont Park Elmont, New York 1 1/2 miles (2,414 m) 1867

While there is a similar series of races specifically for fillies, the "Triple Tiara", each Triple Crown race is open to both colts and fillies. Unlike the British and French Classics, the races are also open to geldings. All the races are held on dirt tracks, rather than the turf commonly used for important races in Europe.

Winners of the Triple Crown

At completion of the 2008 season, the three Triple Crown races have attracted 3,889 entrants. Of these, 274 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 50 horses have won two of the races (21 the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, 18 the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes, and 11 the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes), and eleven horses have won all three races. Pillory won both the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes in 1922, a year when it was impossible to win the Triple Crown due to the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes occurring on the same day.

Year

Winner

Jockey

Trainer

Owner

Breeder

1919 Sir Barton Johnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell J. K. L. Ross John E. Madden
1930 Gallant Fox Earl Sande Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud
1935 Omaha Willie Saunders Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud
1937 War Admiral Charley Kurtsinger George H. Conway Samuel D. Riddle Samuel D. Riddle
1941 Whirlaway Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm
1943 Count Fleet Johnny Longden Don Cameron Fannie Hertz Fannie Hertz
1946 Assault Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch King Ranch
1948 Citation Eddie Arcaro Horace A. Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm
1973 Secretariat Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable Meadow Stud
1977 Seattle Slew Jean Cruguet William H. Turner, Jr. Karen L. Taylor Ben S. Castleman
1978 Affirmed Steve Cauthen Laz Barrera Harbor View Farm Harbor View Farm

Ten trainers have won the Triple Crown, including Jim Fitzsimmons with Gallant Fox and Omaha as the only trainer to have won two.

In addition, Eddie Arcaro is the only jockey to ride two horses to the Triple Crown.

Individual Triple Crown winners

In 1995, D. Wayne Lukas became the first and only major figure (owner, jockey, or trainer) to sweep the Triple Crown races with different horses.

Year

Person

Type

Kentucky Derby

Preakness Stakes

Belmont Stakes

1995 D. Wayne Lukas Trainer Thunder Gulch Timber Country Thunder Gulch

Only one jockey, Calvin Borel, has taken two of the Triple Crown races in the same year with different horses. He took the Kentucky Derby with Mine That Bird, and the Preakness Stakes with Rachel Alexandra. He rode Mine That Bird to a show finish at the Belmont Stakes.

Individual race winners

Year

Kentucky Derby

Preakness Stakes

Belmont Stakes

1867 Ruthless
1868 General Duke
1869 Fenian
1870 Kingfisher
1871 Harry Bassett
1872 Joe Daniels
1873 Survivor Springbok
1874 Culpepper Saxon
1875 Aristides Tom Ochiltree Calvin
1876 Vagrant Shirley Algerine
1877 Baden-Baden

Cloverbrook

Cloverbrook

1878 Day Star

Duke of Magenta

Duke of Magenta

1879 Lord Murphy Harold Spendthrift
1880 Fonso

Grenada

Grenada

1881 Hindoo

Saunterer

Saunterer

1882 Apollo Vanguard Forester
1883 Leonatus Jacobus George Kinney
1884 Buchanan Knight of Ellerslie Panique
1885 Joe Cotton Tecumseh Tyrant
1886 Ben Ali The Bard Inspector B
1887 Montrose Dunboyne Hanover
1888 Macbeth II Refund Sir Dixon
1889 Spokane Buddhist Eric
1890 Riley Montaguea Burlington
1891 Kingman

RNR

Foxford
1892 Azra

RNR

Patron
1893 Lookout

RNR

Commanche
1894 Chant Assigneeb Henry of Navarre
1895 Halma

Belmarb

Belmar

1896 Ben Brush Margraveb Hastings
1897 Typhoon II Paul Kauvarb Scottish Chieftain
1898 Plaudit Sly Foxb Bowling Brook
1899 Manuel Half Timeb Jean Bereaud
1900 Lieut. Gibson Hindusb Ildrim
1901 His Eminence The Paraderb Commando
1902 Alan-a-Dale Old Englandb Masterman
1903 Judge Himes Flocarlineb Africander
1904 Elwood Bryn Mawrb Delhi
1905 Agile Cairngormb Tanya
1906 Sir Huon Whimsicalb Burgomaster
1907 Pink Star Don Enriqueb Peter Pan I
1908 Stone Street Royal Touristb Colin
1909 Wintergreen Effendi Joe Madden
1910 Donau Layminster Sweep
1911 Meridian Watervale

RNR

1912 Worth Colonel Holloway

RNR

1913 Donerail Buskin Prince Eugene
1914 Old Rosebud Holiday Luke McLuke
1915 Regret Rhine Maiden The Finn
1916 George Smith Damrosch Friar Rock
1917 Omar Khayyamc Kalitanc Hourless
1918 Exterminator War Cloudd
Jack Hare, Jr.d
Johren
1919 Sir Barton Sir Barton Sir Barton
1920 Paul Jones

Man o' War

Man o' War

1921 Behave Yourself Broomspun Grey Lag
1922 Morvichc

Pilloryc

Pillory

1923

Zev

Vigil

Zev

1924 Black Gold Nellie Morse Mad Play
1925 Flying Ebony Coventry American Flag
1926 Bubbling Over Display Crusader
1927 Whiskery Bostonian Chance Shot
1928 Reigh Count Victorian Vito
1929 Clyde Van Dusen Dr. Freeland Blue Larkspur
1930 Gallant Fox Gallant Fox Gallant Fox
1931

Twenty Grand

Mate

Twenty Grand

1932

Burgoo King

Burgoo King

Faireno
1933 Brokers Tip Head Play Hurryoff
1934 Cavalcade High Quest Peace Chance
1935 Omaha Omaha Omaha
1936

Bold Venture

Bold Venture

Granville
1937 War Admiral War Admiral War Admiral
1938 Lawrin Dauber Pasteurized
1939

Johnstown

Challedon

Johnstown

1940 Gallahadion

Bimelech

Bimelech

1941 Whirlaway Whirlaway Whirlaway
1942

Shut Out

Alsab

Shut Out

1943 Count Fleet Count Fleet Count Fleet
1944

Pensive

Pensive

Bounding Home
1945 Hoop Jr. Polynesian Pavot
1946 Assault Assault Assault
1947 Jet Pilot Faultless Phalanx
1948 Citation Citation Citation
1949 Ponder

Capot

Capot

1950

Middleground

Hill Prince

Middleground

1951 Count Turf Bold Counterpoint
1952 Hill Gail Blue Man One Count
1953 Dark Star

Native Dancer

Native Dancer

1954 Determine Hasty Road High Gun
1955 Swaps

Nashua

Nashua

1956

Needles

Fabius

Needles

1957 Iron Liege Bold Ruler Gallant Man
1958

Tim Tam

Tim Tam

Cavan
1959 Tomy Lee Royal Orbit Sword Dancer
1960 Venetian Way Bally Ache Celtic Ash
1961

Carry Back

Carry Back

Sherluck
1962 Decidedly Greek Money Jaipur
1963

Chateaugay

Candy Spots

Chateaugaye

1964

Northern Dancer

Northern Dancer

Quadranglee
1965 Lucky Debonair Tom Rolfe Hail To Alle
1966

Kauai King

Kauai King

Amberoide
1967 Proud Clarion

Damascus

Damascuse

1968

Forward Passf

Forward Pass

Stage Door Johnny
1969

Majestic Prince

Majestic Prince

Arts and Letters
1970 Dust Commander Personality High Echelon
1971

Canonero II

Canonero II

Pass Catcher
1972

Riva Ridge

Bee Bee Bee

Riva Ridge

1973 Secretariat Secretariat Secretariat
1974 Cannonade

Little Current

Little Current

1975 Foolish Pleasure Master Derby Avatar
1976

Bold Forbes

Elocutionist

Bold Forbes

1977 Seattle Slew Seattle Slew Seattle Slew
1978 Affirmed Affirmed Affirmed
1979

Spectacular Bid

Spectacular Bid

Coastal
1980 Genuine Risk Codex Temperence Hill
1981

Pleasant Colony

Pleasant Colony

Summing
1982 Gato Del Sol Aloma's Ruler Conquistador Cielo
1983 Sunny's Halo Deputed Testamony Caveat
1984

Swale

Gate Dancer

Swale

1985 Spend A Buck Tank's Prospect Creme Fraiche
1986 Ferdinand Snow Chief Danzig Connection
1987

Alysheba

Alysheba

Bet Twice
1988 Winning Colors

Risen Star

Risen Star

1989

Sunday Silence

Sunday Silence

Easy Goer
1990 Unbridled Summer Squall Go And Go
1991 Strike the Gold

Hansel

Hansel

1992 Lil E. Tee Pine Bluff A.P. Indy
1993 Sea Hero Prairie Bayou Colonial Affair
1994 Go for Gin

Tabasco Cat

Tabasco Cat

1995

Thunder Gulch

Timber Country

Thunder Gulch

1996 Grindstone Louis Quatorze Editor's Note
1997

Silver Charm

Silver Charm

Touch Gold
1998

Real Quiet

Real Quiet

Victory Gallop
1999

Charismatic

Charismatic

Lemon Drop Kid
2000 Fusaichi Pegasus Red Bullet Commendable
2001 Monarchos

Point Given

Point Given

2002

War Emblem

War Emblem

Sarava
2003

Funny Cide

Funny Cide

Empire Maker
2004

Smarty Jones

Smarty Jones

Birdstone
2005 Giacomo

Afleet Alex

Afleet Alex

2006 Barbaro Bernardini Jazil
2007 Street Sense Curlin Rags to Riches
2008

Big Brown

Big Brown

Da' Tara
2009 Mine That Bird Rachel Alexandra Summer Bird
2010 Super Saver Lookin at Lucky Drosselmeyer

See also: Highest combined Triple Crown finish

Notes

  • b From 1894 to 1908, the Preakness Stakes were held at Gravesend Race Track on Coney Island, New York.
  • c In 1917 and 1920, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were held on the same day.
  • d The 1918 Preakness Stakes was held in two divisions due to a large field. War Cloud won one and Jack Hare, Jr. the other.
  • e Due to reconstruction at Belmont Park, the Belmont Stakes were held at Aqueduct Racetrack in Queens, New York from 1963 to 1967.
  • fDancer's Image was disqualified as the winner of the 1968 due to a failed drug test.
  • Fillies won the Kentucky Derby in 1915, 1980, and 1988, Preakness Stakes in 1903, 1906, 1915, 1924, and 2009, and Belmont Stakes in 1867, 1905, and 2007.
  • RNR Race not run. The Belmont was not run in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-betting legislation passed in New York State. The Preakness did not run 1891-1893.

Thirty-two year drought

File:Big Brown Belmont.jpg
Big Brown, the winner of the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, at the 2008 Belmont Stakes, where he was pulled up.

There has not been a Triple Crown winner since June 7, 1978, and this is the longest drought in Triple Crown history. Since 1978, eleven horses have won both the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. Of those, Real Quiet has come the closest to winning the Triple Crown, losing the Belmont Stakes by a nose in 1998. Charismatic led the Belmont Stakes in the final furlong in 1999, but fractured his left front leg in the final stretch and fell back to third. The four most recent horses to win the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes but lose the Belmont Stakes were War Emblem in 2002, Funny Cide in 2003, Smarty Jones in 2004, and Big Brown in 2008.

Hall of Fame jockey Gary Stevens stated in an interview with Charlie Rose that he doesn't think there will be another Triple Crown winner because of the tendency for owners to put fresh horses in the Preakness and Belmont Stakes.[2]

Several horses have won two of the three races since the last Triple Crown win, most recently Afleet Alex in 2005, who lost the Kentucky Derby but won the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes. The most unusual of those situations was in 1995, when Thunder Gulch won the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes, and stablemate Timber Country won the Preakness Stakes. Both horses were trained by D. Wayne Lukas, making him the only Triple Crown-winning trainer without a Triple Crown-winning horse.

Only one horse, Alydar, has placed (second place) in all three races. He was defeated by Affirmed in all three races in 1978 by a combined margin of two lengths. In addition, Mane Minister finished third in each race in 1991, and Hawkster finished fifth in each race in 1989.

Gallant Fox is the only triple crown winner to sire another triple crown winner, Omaha.

Belmont results for potential Triple Crown winners since 1979

  • 1979: Spectacular Bid shows, 3.25 lengths behind the winner, Coastal, a neck behind the second-place horse, Golden Act.
  • 1981: Pleasant Colony shows, 1.5 lengths behind the winner, Summing, and the second-place horse, Highland Blade.
  • 1987: Alysheba finishes fourth.
  • 1989: Sunday Silence places, 8 lengths behind the winner, Easy Goer.
  • 1997: Silver Charm places, one half length behind the winner, Touch Gold.
  • 1998: Real Quiet places after a photo finish, a nose behind the winner, Victory Gallop.
  • 1999: Charismatic shows, 1.5 lengths behind the winner, Lemon Drop Kid, and the second-place horse, Vision and Verse.
  • 2002: War Emblem stumbles at gate, finishes eighth out of 11.
  • 2003: Funny Cide shows, 5 lengths behind the winner, Empire Maker, and 4.25 lengths behind the second-place horse, Ten Most Wanted.
  • 2004: Smarty Jones places, one length behind the winner, Birdstone.
  • 2008: Big Brown, with a cracked hoof, is pulled up in the home stretch, loping to a last-place finish. Scored as a DNF.

Sponsorship

Years

Sponsor

Bonuses

1987-1993 Chrysler Corporation $1 million (best overall record)
$5 million (three wins)
1998-2005 Visa USA $5 million (three wins)
2006–Present Triple Crown Productions $5 million (three wins)

On May 21, 2005, the Visa credit card company withdrew its sponsorship of the Triple Crown, effective in 2006.[citation needed] It relieved Visa of paying the $5 million bonus to the owner of a horse that would win the Triple Crown. Triple Crown Productions has sponsored the races since 2006.[citation needed] The $5 million bonus remains intact.[1]

Many believe Visa withdrew its sponsorship as a result of the New York Racing Association's decision to break with the other two tracks on a television contract. On October 4, 2004, NYRA announced that the American Broadcasting Company and ESPN would hold television rights to the Belmont Stakes, breaking from Triple Crown Productions' deal with NBC Sports.[citation needed] NBC Sports holds the broadcasting rights to the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes until 2010. Triple Crown Productions was formed in 1986 with ABC. Prior to that, the individual racing associations made their own deals with the television networks (ABC and CBS).

Notes

  1. Liebman, Bennett (April 24, 2008). "Origins of Triple Crown". The Rail: The Race for the Triple Crown (New York, NY: The New York Times). http://therail.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/04/24/origins-of-triple-crown/. Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
  2. http://www.charlierose.com/view/interview/1878, July 21, 2003, retrieved April 6, 2010


External links

  • "The Most Glorious Crown: The Story Of America's Triple Crown Thoroughbreds From Sir Barton To Affirmed" by Marvin Drager. (2005) Triumph Books (ISBN 1-57243-724-3)

See also



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