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Crucifix (horse)

Sire Priam
Dam Octaviana
Grandsire Emilius
Damsire Octavian
Gender Mare
Foaled 1837
Country Great Britain
Color Bay
Breeder George Stanhope, 6th Earl of Chesterfield
Owner 1. Lord George Bentinck
2. Edward Lloyd-Mostyn, 2nd Baron Mostyn
3. Henry Agar-Ellis, 3rd Viscount Clifden.
Trainer John Barham Day
Record 12 starts, 11½ wins (inc. dead heat)
Earnings £10,287
Crucifix is a thoroughbred racehorse out of Octaviana by Priam. She was born around 1837 in Great Britain, and was bred by George Stanhope, 6th Earl of Chesterfield.
Major wins
1840 One Thousand Guineas
1840 Two Thousand Guineas
1840 Epsom Oaks
Horse (Equus ferus caballus)

Crucifix (1837–1857) was an undefeated, Classic Race winning, British-bred Thoroughbred racemare. She was also the dam of three sires who had a great influence on the breed.



Crucifix was a bay filly foaled in 1837, by the Epsom Derby winner, Priam; her dam was the then 21 year old, Octaviana by Octavian.[1] Her breeder was George Stanhope, 6th Earl of Chesterfield. Crucifix was a sister to Chesterfield, who sired the stakes-winner, The Hero. Her sire, Priam, also sired the Epsom Oaks winners Miss Letty and Industry before he was sold for 3,500 guineas and exported in 1837 to Virginia in the United States.[2]

The powerful racing figure, Lord George Bentinck, bought Crucifix as a foal at foot with her 22 year old dam for 65 guineas. At maturity, Crucifix stood nearly 16 hands high, with her body being described as "wiry", and she possessed a temperamental disposition.[3]

Racing record

At two years: 1839

Crucifix had nine starts for wins in the Chesterfield Stakes (carrying top weight), Lavant Stakes, July Stakes and Molecombe Stakes, the Hopeful Stakes at Newmarket, the Clearwell Stakes, the Prendergast Stakes, and a walk-over in a sweepstakes at Newmarket; in the ninth race, the Criterion Stakes she dead-heated with Gibraltar. Her prize money for that season was a record £4,587.

At three years: 1840

In her three starts as a three-year-old Crucifix won the Two Thousand Guineas, One Thousand Guineas and Epsom Oaks. The false starts resorted to at the start of the Oaks lasted about an hour and it took about 15 attempts to get the 15 runners started. As a result of these tactics to defeat favourites, Lord George introduced reforms to inhibit this practice.[4] Welfare ran second to Crucifix and she too, was by Priam. After the running of the Oaks Crucifix pulled up lame, and was retired with earnings of £10,287.[3]

Crucifix became shortest odds winner of the 1,000 Guineas when she was 1/10 odds on. She was also the first of only four horses to ever win both the 1,000 Guineas and the 2,000 Guineas in the same year, when the two races were run two days apart. In her dead-heat in the Criterion Stakes at Newmarket Racecourse and her win in the Oaks Stakes at Epsom, Crucifix defeated the good mare Pocahontas and others on each occasion.[5]

Stud record

Crucifix was the dam of:

  • 1842 colt, Cowl by Bay Middleton, sire
  • 1844 b colt, Crozier by Lancercost
  • 1846 Cucullus by Bay Middleton, died
  • 1847 colt, Pontifex by Touchstone
  • 1849 filly, Rosary by Touchstone
  • 1850 b colt, Constantine, by Cotherstone
  • 1851 b colt, Cardinal, by Touchstone
  • 1852 filly, Chalice by Orlando, won Royal Hunt Cup, second dam of Placida (Epsom Oaks)[6]

In order to pursue his political career Lord Bentinck sold his entire racing interests, including at least 60 horses along with Crucifix and her son, and future Epsom Derby winner, Surplice, for £10,000 to Edward Lloyd-Mostyn, 2nd Baron Mostyn.[7] Crucifix was later sold to Henry Agar-Ellis, 3rd Viscount Clifden.[8]

Ajax, the undefeated French Derby winner and sire, great broodmare Double Life (dam of Precipitation and Persian Gulf), and a many other good horses descend from Crucifix in the distaff line. Crucifix also became the 12th dam of another great race-mare, Meld who won the British Fillies Triple Crown. Crucifix is the taproot mare of Family 2-i.[9]

Crucifix died in 1857 and was buried beside Bay Middleton at the Days' stables, Danebury, near Stockbridge, Hampshire. [10]

Tabulated pedigree

Pedigree of Crucifix (2-i) B. m. 1837
Bay 1827
Bay 1820
Orville Beningbrough
Emily Stamford
Whiskey mare 1799 (28)
Bay 1807
Whiskey Saltram
Young Giantess Diomed
Bay 1815
Ch. 1807
Stripling Phoenomenon
Oberon mare (1796) Oberon
Ranthos mare 1779 (8)
Shuttle mare
Bay 1807
Shuttle Young Marske
Vauxhall Snap mare 1784 (21)
Zara Delpini
Flora (2-c)

See also

  • List of notable Thoroughbred racehorses


  1. Leicester, Sir Charles, Bloodstock Breeding, J.A. Allen & Co, London, 1969
  2. Morris, Simon; Tesio Power 2000 - Stallions of the World, Syntax Software
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ahnert, Rainer L. (editor in chief), Thoroughbred Breeding of the World, Pozdun Publishing, Germany, 1970
  4. Kent, John, Racing life of Lord George Cavendish Bentinck, M.P. and other reminiscences, W. Blackwood, Edinburgh,1892
  5. 1,000 Guineas Records Retrieved 2010-4-14
  6. Thoroughbred Bloodlines: Crucifix Retrieved 2010-3-31
  7. Montgomery, E.S, “The Thoroughbred”, Arco, New York, 1973 ISBN 0-668-02824-6
  8. Thoroughbred Heritage: Priam Retrieved 24 April 2010
  9. Thoroughbred Bloodlines: Crucifix Retrieved 23 April 2010
  10. Thoroughbred Bloodlines: Crucifix Retrieved 24 April 2010


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