A fiador (pronounced /ˈfiː.ədɔr/) is an article of horse tack of Spanish colonial origin and used principally in the Americas. In English-speaking North America, the fiador is known principally as a type of throatlatch used on the bosal-style hackamore. Its purpose is to stabilize a heavy noseband or bosal and prevent the bridle from shifting. It is not used for tying the horse.
In Latin America, the term fiador is used to describe a type of neck rope. This fiador can be a simple neck rope or a neck collar and lead rope, or a distinct article of headgear with its own browband or with a frentera and noseband.
A fiador-like design and fiador knot is also used under the jaw on some rope halters, usually ending in a loop to which a lead rope can be attached. This, however, is not an independent "fiador," nor generally labeled as such, it is simply an integral part of the halter itself.
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The origin of the word fiador in its equestrian sense is obscure but appears to be of South American origin. In Spanish, the word fiador has numerous senses, all related to safe-keeping. For example, an 18th century Spanish—English dictionary defines fiador as surety, bail; he that is bound for another. In falconry, the small long line that is fastened to the hawk's leash when she is first lured, to bring her back at pleasure. [...] also the loop of a cloak that comes about the neck to button, that it may not fall off. An early 19th century Portuguese—English dictionary also gives the senses of surety, bail, and falconry long line (creance). By the mid 19th century (prior to 1860) the equestrian sense was in wide use in Argentina, and it also appears in a 1911 dictionary of argentinismos.
The term fiador refers to different styles of equipment in different parts of the western hemisphere.
In the United States and Canada, the fiador is a type of throatlatch sometimes used on a bosal hackamore.  This design crosses over the horse's head at the poll, with a knot under the jawbones, and attaches to the hackamore at the noseband or bosal. The knot under the jaw is usually a fiador knot, and the fiador may have a second fiador knot at the point where it attaches to the heel knot of the bosal.
In Mexico and in English-speaking North America, the fiador is attached to a headstall via a common (shared) browband, and its opposite end is tied to the bottom of a noseband or bosal on the bridle, leaving a small loop. Although in Mexico this fiador is used on both bridles and hackamores, in the United States and Canada it is used only on a bosal hackamore. This style of fiador functions as a throatlatch, and is attached either above or below the mecate reins. It is often made of cordage and tied in a fiador knot under the jaw.
In South America, the traditional fiador is a neck collar that fits snugly at the top of the horse's neck, immediately behind the head. Often it has its own browband and is worn over a bitted bridle. The browband, if present, is the only part of the fiador to touch the bridle, and the fiador is not in any way attached to the bridle. The extension piece is either a short loop or a long lead rope.
In North America, a fiador is usually made from rope or cordage. Materials used may include horsehair, rawhide, cotton sash cord, or nylon. Cotton or nylon rope of approximately 6 mm diameter is the most common material. It runs behind the ears, over the poll of the horse, then joins under the cheeks with a fiador knot, or occasionally a Matthew Walker's knot. There are two loops on the front end, and a loop and two tails on the back. The double loop runs forward to the heel knot of the bosal, where it is traditionally attached using what sailors call the bottle sling. The double tails from the backside of the knot pass over the poll, where they are passed through the remaining loop in a sheet bend below the left temple of the horse. The fiador can easily be detached from the headstall and, with somewhat more difficulty due to the need to untie the bottle sling knot, from the bosal.
In South America, a fiador is usually made of the same material as the rest of the halter or bridle, or of rawhide, and is fixed with a knotted button and button hole.
In North America, a fiador is used most often on some bosal-style hackamores to stabilize a heavy bosal noseband on the horse's head. It is most often used when starting young horses with a heavy bosal within the "California" or vaquero tradition, and used throughout the hackamore phase of training horses within the "Texas" tradition of Western style riding.  A bosal adjusted low on the horse's nose requires the fiador for proper balance, and also makes it easier to handle the horse on the ground when using the lead rope end of the mecate three rein system. A horse is not tied with a hackamore, even with a fiador, but rather, the fiador prevents the headgear from falling off the horse's head.
On rope halters, particularly designs that can also be used as a type of hackamore or bitless bridle, a fiador is fully incorporated into the headgear and is not detachable. The halter is used with a mecate or reins, which are attached to the fiador loop that hangs below the chin.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Miller, Robert W. Horse Behavior and Training Big Sky Books, Montana State University, 1974, pp 125-134.
- ↑ Giuseppe Marco Antonio Baretti (1794). A Dictionary, Spanish and English, and English and Spanish.
- ↑ Antonio Vieyra, Jacinto Dias do Canto (1827). A Dictionary of the Portuguese and English Languages, in Two Parts: Portuguese and English, and English and Portuguese. J. Collingwood. http://books.google.com/books?id=_Es8AAAAIAAJ.
- ↑ Terrera, Guillermo Alfredo (1970). El caballo criollo en la tradición Argentina. Plus Ultra. pp. 484. Page 256.
- ↑ Lisandro Segovia (1911) (in Spanish). Diccionario de argentinismos: Neologismos y barbarismos, con un apéndice sobre voces extranjeras interesantes. Comisión Nacional del Centenario, Impr. de Coni hermanos. pp. 1094. http://books.google.com/books?id=Aq8ASq7AdzQC. Page 414.
- ↑ Steven D. Price, Gail Rentsch, Werner Rentsch, Barbara Burn, David A. Spector (1998). The Whole Horse Catalog. Simon and Schuster. pp. 352. ISBN 0684839954, 9780684839950. http://books.google.com/books?id=PNCDnuPkqfMC. Page 158-159
- ↑ Robert M. Miller, Richard A. Lamb, Rick Lamb, Hugh Downs (2005). The Revolution in Horsemanship. Globe Pequot. pp. 354. ISBN 159228387X. http://books.google.com/books?id=SZXEGcF48ZAC. Page 225
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Example of a fiador. Web site accessed March 19, 2008
- ↑ Image: bosal, hanger, and fiador
- ↑ Knots and Lashings: Fiador Knots
- ↑ William Foster-Harris (2007) The Look of the Old West: A Fully Illustrated Guide, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 316 pages, page 252.
- ↑ Argentine online tack catalog
- ↑ Boletín de la Real Academia Española, volume 8, 1921, Page 361. "FIADOR: ... Es la correa que, unida a las laterales de la cabezada, envuelve la garganta."
- ↑ Australian online tack catalog
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