Glencoe, from Frank Forester's Horse and Horsemanship of the United States published in 1857
|Breeder||George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey|
|Owner||George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey|
|Trainer||James "Tiny" Edwards|
|Glencoe is a thoroughbred racehorse out of Trampoline by Sultan. He was born around 1831 in Great Britain, and was bred by George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey.|
British Classic Race wins:|
2,000 Guineas (1834)
Leading sire in North America|
(1847, 1849, 1850, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857)
|Horse (Equus ferus caballus)|
|Last updated on July 20, 2007|
Glencoe (1831–1857) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse, as well as a sire of several champions. A chestnut colt who stood 15.1 3/4 hands (1.57 m), he was marked by a large forehead star and half-stocking hind legs.
Racing career of Glencoe
Glencoe was by Sultan, a stallion with incredible versatillity, who won races from 6 furlongs to over 3 miles. He ran until the age of eight, and was leading sire in Great Britain six consecutive years (1832–1837). Trampoline (by Tramp), the dam of Glencoe, was a fairly good racemare, and an even better producer of racehorses, foaling not only Glencoe, but her fantastic daughter Glencaire (by Sultan), also a prolific broodmare.
Glencoe was foaled at his breeder's stud, located in Oxfordshire. He had a long, hollow back that sagged, especially as he aged, but still had a fine head, lovely neck, sound legs, deep girth, and powerful hindquarters with wide hips, inherited from his sire. Glencoe also inherited great staying power from his grandsire, Tramp.
Glencoe was started as a three-year-old, under trainer James Edwards. Edwards is still the only trainer to have won four successive 2,000 Guineas, all four horses sired by Sultan, and bred by the Earl of Jersey. Glencoe, the trainer's favorite horse, was the first of these four.
Glencoe first ran at the 1834 Second Riddlesworth Stakes, winning a £1400 purse and finishing in a canter. He then won the Desert Stakes in a canter, before winning the 2,000 Guineas Stakes, for a purse of 1750 sovereigns. Glencoe's first loss in a stakes race was the Derby Stakes, to Plenipotentiary and Shillelah. He then had a walk-over in the Royal Stakes, and won the rest of his races that season: the Goodwood Cup, by four lengths at the canter and beating Colwick, the Racing Stakes, against three others, and the Garden Stakes, by four lengths and beating Colwick. After his impressive three-year-old career, the London Sporting Magazine wrote: "...from his late performances he has shown himself the best horse in the world. Where is there one to be found to meet him at weight for age? Not in England, assuredly."
As a four-year-old, Glencoe won his only race of the season, the 2.5 mile Ascot Gold Cup. He was entered in the whip during his second season, but there were no responses to the challenge. Glencoe was then retired, with an impressive record:
- 1834: 9 starts, with 7 wins, 1 place, and 1 third
- 1835: 1 start with 1 win
The breeding career of Glencoe
Glencoe stayed in Britain for a short time after his retirement, standing at Tattersall's Dawley Wall Farm his first season. He covered three Jersey and forty outside mares, producing twenty three offspring. One of these mares, Marpessa, had raced against Glencoe earlier in his career. She produced his daughter, the great filly Pocahontas. Pocahontas is said to be the greatest broodmare in the history of racing, producing three outstanding sons—Stockwell, Rataplan, and King Tom. During his first year, Glencoe also sired Darkness, an Ascot Stakes winner, who is in the female side of French sire Plutus.
Bought by American James Jackson, Glencoe was then shipped to the United States at the end of the 1836 breeding season, arriving in New York before being sent south. James Jackson was an Irish-American emigrant who had built up a business in Nashville and started the farm Forks of Cypress in northern Alabama. Glencoe was one of the first Thoroughbreds to be imported into the United States, and had an incredible effect on the Thoroughbred bloodlines of the country, siring a calculated 481 foals during his twenty-two years at standing at stud in Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky. It is not known what happened to the last of his foals, who were born during the first years of the American Civil War, and it is thought that the birth of many foals were not recorded. Many of these fine horses were drafted into the war effort, on both sides.
Glencoe was bred in 1836 to two mares. He continued to stand in Alabama for seven years, with a stud fee of $100, siring 132 offspring. After Jackson's death in 1840, Glencoe was sent to stand in Nashville, Tennessee, for a fee of $50. He was sold in 1848, at the age of seventeen, to W.F. Harper of Midway, Kentucky, for the price of $3,000. Harper sent the horse to his Nantura Stud in 1855, and raised the stallion's stud fee to $100, where the chestnut produced twenty one live foals from his 1855 covers, and fifteen from his 1856 covers.
Glencoe was sold again in 1857, at the age of twenty six, to Alexander Keene Richards, owner of Blue Grass Park in Georgetown, Kentucky. Glencoe died in August, "...from a very violent attack of lung fever." The British press reported: "With all his ancient pluck, he stood up bravely against spasmodic colic and lung-fever, for ten days, and died quite exhausted, from bleeding at the nose." He was buried on Richard's Farm.
During his time in the United States, Glencoe was leading sire eight times in the 1840s and 1850s. Most of his offspring raced in 3- and 4-mile races. He sired more than twice the number of fillies to colts while he stood in America, producing at least 317 fillies, and his female offspring were superior to his male in both racing and breeding. Glencoe is therefore most known as a broodmare sire, producing not only the great Pocahontas, but Reel, one of the most influential broodmares in American racing history.
Offspring of Glencoe
Pocahontas a prolific broodmare.
Pryor: Pryor, or "Prior", was foaled in 1852. He was the best of Glencoe's sons, winning several races in the United States, before he was shipped to England. There he had an unsuccessful career, and did not sire any notable offspring.
Vandal: 1850 dark bay colt, won three-miler races, and inheirted Glencoe's sway-back. He sired several nice daughters, including Ella D (dam of Bourbon Belle, who was the dam of Hanover), Mollie Jackson, a good race and broodmare, and the filly Vandalite (champion three-year-old of 1874). He was ranked second, to Lexington, on the leading sires list in 1862. His sons included Virgil, Voltigeur (sire of Princeton, the three-time winner of the Maryland Hunt Cup, and sire of filly Nora M. who produced the foundation Quarter Horse, Peter McCue), Versailles (grandsire to three-time Maryland Hunt Cup winner, Garry Owen).
Reel: She was the greatest of Glencoe's daughters, undefeated at a mile, two miles, and four miles, before she was injured at the age of five in her last race. She produced ten excellent racehorses, including Lecomte by Boston (beat Lexington), Prioress (set course records in America, and won in England), Starke (won several races in England), War Dance (a fantastic sire), and many daughters. She is in the pedigree of Two Lea, Tim Tam, and Winning Colors, and is considered to be the greatest broodmare of the 19th century in America.
Novice: won races as a three-year-old. She was dam to Norfolk (by Lexington), who won several races and became an outstanding sire, and was grandsire of Rey del Caredas (aka Americus), who entered the General Stud Book in England.
Peytona: she won $35,000 in the Peyton Stakes, as a four-year-old, and won a match race against Fashion (a great racemare of the North and the only horse, male or female, to beat Boston on merit). She retired with winnings of $62,400, an American record she held for fifteen years. However, she did not succeed as a broodmare, partially because Keene Richards bred her to his pure Arabian stallions. Only her daughter, Transylvania, produced a notable racehorse: Limestone (by War Dance), winner of nineteen races in 1874.
Charmer: 1844 filly, was very successful as a four-year-old, and ran until the age of ten, winning twenty seven races in forty starts. She was never beaten in any race over three-miles (in which she started in 16). She produced five foals, and is found in the pedigrees of Emperor of Norfolk, El Rio Rey, and Yo Tambien.
Florine: 1854 brown filly. She produced the racemares Idlewild and Aerolite (both by Lexington). Idlewild won fifteen races before she was retired to be a broodmare. Aerolite was dam to several great racehorses.
Magnolia: 1841 filly, dam to Daniel Boone and Kentucky (both by Lexington), as well as the filly Skedaddle (dam to Saucebox, Slyboots, and others).
Topaz: 1844 filly, produced the racehorses Waterloo, Austerlitz, Lodi, and Wagram.