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Lambourn is a large village and civil parish in the northwestern part of the ceremonial county of Berkshire in England. It is best known for its associations with British National Hunt racehorse training.



Lambourn is situated in the valley of the River Lambourn, a summer bourn in the chalk upland area of the Berkshire Downs. It is 13 miles (21 km) north-west of Newbury, 13 miles (21 km) north-east of Marlborough, 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Swindon, 7 miles (11 km) south-west of Wantage and 7 miles (11 km) north of Hungerford. When the Vale of the White Horse was transfered to Oxfordshire in 1974 it became the westernmost parish in Berkshire bordering Wiltshire to the south and west and Oxfordshire to the north and west, the only adjacent parishes in Berkshire are East Garston to the east and Hungerford to the south east. Lambourn lies on the crossroads of the B4000 from Newbury to Highworth and the B4001 from Chilton Foliat to Childrey. The B4000 used to follow the River Lambourn up the Newbury Road until the construction of the M4 motorway in the early 1970s.[1] When the M4 Motorway was built the B4000 was diverted along Ermin Street as the old road could not be widened for HGVs in the narrow streets of Great Shefford, Eastbury and Lambourn. The B4001 was also diverted onto Ermin Street because of the M4 and the B4000 and B4001 merge until they arrive in Lambourn at the bottom of Hungerford Hill. The M4 Motorway passes through the southern part of the parish between Junction 14 (7 miles (11 km) south-east of the village) and Junction 15 (8 miles (13 km) to the west). Membury Service Station (previously RAF Membury), Membury transmitting station and the north-eastern quarter of Membury iron age fort are in the south-west corner of the parish. In 1898 the Lambourn Valley Railway was built and a branch line connected Lambourn to Newbury until it was closed in 1964 after the Beeching Report. The nearest station is now at Hungerford on the Reading to Plymouth Line.

Lambourn Downs

They heard of the Great Barrows, and the green mounds, and the stone-rings upon the hills and in the hollows among the hills. Sheep were bleating in flocks. Green walls and white walls rose. There were fortresses on the heights. There were fortresses on the heights. Kings of little kingdoms fought together, and the young Sun shone like fire on the red metal of their new and greedy swords. There was victory and defeat; and towers fell, fortresses were burned, and flames went up into the sky. Gold was piled on the biers of dead kings and queens; and mounds covered them, and the stone doors were shut; and the grass grew over all. Sheep walked for a while biting the grass, but soon the hills were empty again. J. R. R. Tolkien - The Lord of the Rings

The Lambourn Downs - also known as the Berkshire Downs - are part of the North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and cover an area of 231 square miles (600 square km)[2] from the Ridgeway in the north to the River Kennet in the south. Originally they were entirely in Berkshire, but the Local Government Act 1972 transfered large parts of the downs to Oxfordshire and Wiltshire. Due to the poor, chalky soil the downs could not be used for growing crops until the advent of modern fertilizers. Consequently the high ground was only used for breeding sheep - hence the name of Lambourn - and horses. The Oxford Don and author J. R. R. Tolkien lived nearby and travelled to the Lambourn Downs with his family and friends. He was was impressed by the downs with their sarsen stones, barrows and hill forts and painted a picture of Lambourn in 1912.[3] Within the parish itself are the following downs and chalk hills;

  • Bockhampton Down
  • Cleeve Hill
  • Coppington Down
  • Coppington Hill
  • Crow Down
  • Eastbury Down
  • Ewe Hill
  • Farncombe Down
  • Fognam Down
  • Haycroft Hill
  • Hungerford Hill
  • Kingsdown
  • Lodge Down
  • Mandown
  • Near Down
  • Parkfarm Down
  • Pit Down
  • Post Down
  • Row Down
  • Stancombe Down
  • Thorn Hill
  • Warren Down
  • Wellbottom Down


The civil parish of Lambourn has a population of about 4,200. Besides Lambourn itself, it comprises the villages of Upper Lambourn, Eastbury, Woodlands St Mary and Lambourn Woodlands, together with the hamlets of Mile End, Sheepdrove and Bockhampton and a considerable area of rural downland. The parish council is split into four wards for electoral purposes, with two councillors being elected by the wards of Upper Lambourn, Eastbury and Woodlands St Mary/Lambourn Woodlands; and nine councillors from Lambourn itself.[4][5] The parish shares boundaries with the Berkshire parishes of East Garston and Hungerford, with the Wiltshire parishes of Chilton Foliat, Ramsbury and Baydon, and with the Oxfordshire parishes of Ashbury, Compton Beauchamp, Woolstone, Uffington, Kingston Lisle, Sparsholt, Childrey and Letcombe Bassett.[6] The parish is part of the unitary authority of West Berkshire, and lies within Newbury parliamentary constituency.


Lambourn and the surrounding downland is best known today as a major horse racing centre, mainly National Hunt. Many villagers' work is related to horse racing, but there are an increasing number of commuters who use the M4, including many airline pilots based at Heathrow. The United Kingdom's last cravat makers was based in Lambourn until they closed in 2006. Lambourn Racehorse Transport Ltd was founded in the village in 1930 and transports many of the local horses, especially since the closure of the Lambourn Valley Railway in 1964.[7] It is owned by Merrick Francis (the son of Dick Francis) and is the largest horse transport business in Europe.[8][9]

Horse racing

The racing connection began in the 18th century, when the Earl of Craven held racing meetings on Weathercock Hill near Ashdown House. There were regular race meetings on the Lambourn Downs and private race meetings can be held on Mandown between Upper Lambourn and Seven Barrows. In the 1840s some owners moved their racehorses to Lambourn as the ground at Newmarket was too firm and caused many horses to break down.[10] The first trainers were Edwin Parr, Joseph Saxon, John Prince, Luke Snowden (one of the few trainers to be buried at St Michaels graveyard) and John Drinkald, who went insane when his horse was disqualified after winning a race in which he stood to win £28,000.[11][12] The first stables were at the Red Lion Inn on the crossroads opposite the church, which have been converted into flats and at Lambourn Stables, now called Kingswood House Stables. The well drained, spongy grass, open downs and long flats made Lambourn an ideal for training racehorses and it became a fashionable training centre.[13] Lord Rothschild has his stables at Russley Park in Wiltshire and like Lord Craven his horses practised on the gallops at Lambourn.[14] However, it was not until the Lambourn Valley Railway was built in 1898 that Lambourn grew into its present size. Until then horses could only attend local meets, or had to walk the 10-15 miles to the railway at Newbury. Horses could now be transported to Newbury and from there to meetings all over the country and many new stables were opened in the area. Over 1,500 horses are now stabled in and around Lambourn - second only to Newmarket - there are many major stables, varied turf and all-weather gallops in and around the village. It even has the luxury of two fully licensed equine swimming pools and the Ridgeway Veterinary Group Valley Equine Hospital. As a result it has been dubbed the "Valley of the Racehorse", and this is displayed on the road signs leading into the village.[15] In 2006 the Jockey Club Estates Ltd bought 500 acres of land in the valley, its first investment outside Newmarket, including Mandown and many other gallops and training grounds[16]

Some Lambourn Derby winners

  • Harry Wragg on Felstead in 1928, trained by "Ossie" Bell at Delamere Stables

Some Lambourn Grand National winners

  • Pat Buckley on Ayala in 1963, trained by Keith Piggott at South Bank
  • Willie Robinson on Team Spirit in 1964, trained by Fulke Walwyn at Saxon House
  • Tommy Smith on Jay Trump in 1965, trained by Fred Winter at Uplands Stables
  • Tim Norman on Anglo in 1966, trained by Fred Winter at Uplands Stables
  • Marcus Armytage on Mr Frisk, in 1990, trained by Kim Bailey at Old Manor Stables
  • Jason Titley on Royal Athlete in 1995, trained by Jenny Pitman at Weathercock House

Horse Racing Stables in Lambourn and Upper Lambourn[17]

File:Jockeys taking horses to the gallops, Lambourn, Berks.jpg
Jockeys riding thoroughbreds to the gallops in Lambourn
  • Beechdown Farm
  • Berkeley House Stables
  • Cedar Lodge Stables
  • Coppington Stables
  • Delamere Cottage Stables
  • East Wind Riding Ltd
  • Fair View
  • Felstead Court Stables
  • Flemington Stables
  • Frenchman's Lodge
  • Kingsdown Stables
  • Lethornes Stables
  • Limes Farm
  • Linkslade
  • Neardown Stables
  • Newlands Stables
  • Old Manor Stables
  • Oneway
  • Rhonehurst Stables
  • Rosehill Stables
  • Rowdown Stables
  • Saxon Gate
  • Saxon House Stables
  • Seven Barrows House
  • South Bank
  • Templeton House Stables
  • The Croft
  • Uplands Stables
  • Upshire House Racing Stables
  • Weatherdown House
  • Weathercock House
  • Whitcoombe House Stables
  • Windsor House Stables
  • Windy Hollow Stables


The most common explanation for the name of Lambourn refers to the lambs which were once dipped in the local river.[18] Many spellings have been used over the centuries, such as Lamburnan (880 AD), Lamburna (1086 AD), Lamborne (1644 AD) and Lambourne. It was also called Chipping Lambourn because of its popular market. The spelling was fixed as 'Lambourn' in the early 20th century, but even today, towards Soley, three successive signposts at nearby junctions alternate the spelling of Lambourn and Lambourne. Lower Lambourn was known as Bockhampton, but it was destroyed in the 16th century as the land was absorbed into the Bockhampton Manor House estate.[19] Strangely, there is a modern road sign for Bockhampton on the Newbury Road pointing down Bockhampton Road to the site of the village.

Seven Barrows

Lambourn is famous for its 'Seven Barrows', just above Upper Lambourn. There are actually over thirty Bronze Age burial mounds forming a large prehistoric cemetery. On a line to the west of Seven Barrows is the Long Barrow, which dates from c4,000 BC making it 2,000 years older than the other barrows. Unfortunately it has been half destroyed by deep ploughing and only the mound in the woods and a few sarsen stones remain.[20] A small hoard of Bronze Age gold, comprising three bracelets and two 'armlets', was found in the parish in 2004, and was declared as treasure at a subsequent inquest.[21] In Roman times, the area was extensively farmed, as shown by an archaeological research project based on Maddle Farm. Ermin Street, the major Roman road between Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester) and Glevum (Gloucester), also known as the "Upper or Baydon Road" passes through Lambourn Woodlands as part of the B4000.

St Michael and All Angels

Church and almshouses

...the Downs themselves shelter Lambourn's massive Norman nave.[22]

The mainly Norman parish church (Church of England) is in the village centre, with a surrounding wall built of sarsen stones, and is dedicated to St Michael and All Angels. The road pattern shows an original circular enclosure, suggesting pagan Celtic origins. Alfred the Great, born in Wantage, was also closely connected with the church and mentioned it in his will. It was probably King Canute who granted Lambourn Church to the Dean of St Paul's. Successors to that office held it until 1836. Inside are monuments to the great and the good of the many manors in the parish, including an excellent brass to John Estbury (1508), who founded the almshouses outside, and fine effigies of Sir Thomas Essex and his wife (1558). The almshouses were established by an Act of Parliament in the reign of King Henry VII and confirmed by his son King Henry VIII after the Dissolution of the Monasteries made the original uncertain as it included a now forbidden chantry.[23] There is an arch with mediaeval carvings of hunting scenes. The church was much restored in the 19th century and has a chancel roof designed by G. E. Street. The church also boasts a fine three-manual Henry Willis organ.

The Anarchy

The Empress Matilda bequeathed Lambourn and Chippenham to Hugh de Plucket out of the Royal demesne in 1142 for his aid in The Anarchy of the civil wars against the usurper Stephen of Blois.[24] However, another Breton adventurer Josce de Dinan and his knights retreated to Lambourn after he lost Ludlow Castle to Roger de Lacey and Maltida's son King Henry II gave him Chipping Lambourn in compensation in 1156.[25] Josce died in 1162 AD and in either case the Plunket family were in possession of the Manor by the beginning of the 14th century.[26]

English Civil War

During the Civil War Prince Rupert and his Cavaliers rested at Lambourn on the night of 18th and 19th September 1643, between fighting a skirmish with the Parliamentarian Army at Aldbourne Chase on the 18th and the First Battle of Newbury on the 20th.[27] Queen Henrietta Maria stayed at Kingswood House on 18th April 1644 en route to Exeter, having said her final farewell to her husband King Charles I a few days before at Oxford.[28] Kingswood was an Elizabethan manor house which was demolished a long time ago and replaced by the current Kingswood House Stables. On 9th November 1644 King Charles and the Royalist Army relieved Donnington Castle in the face of the Army of the Eastern Association led by the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell. Thereafter he withdrew to Lambourn and stayed in "The King's Chamber" at Kingswood House, while the Royalist infantry were quartered in Lambourn and the cavalry at Wantage. The Parliamentarian Scoutmaster Sir Samuel Luke reported "Monday. 11 November 1644. The last night the King's head-quarters were at Wantage and Lamborne ... all the foot that which lay at Lamborne marcht away this morning towards Auborne".[29]

The Luddites and Captain Swing

There were Captain Swing anti-machinery riots in Lambourn in 1832-33. It was said that 'there would be no good times at Lambourn until there was a good fire' and several farm buildings were burned by Luddite agricultural labourers whose wages had been slashed by the introduction of machinery.[30] The Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawn wrote 'A threshing machine was broken at Lambourn; and from there the movement spread south to Eastbury and East Garston, where money was collected and several machines were destroyed'.[31] The labourers demanded 40 shillings for their loss of earnings and an increase in wages from 8 shillings to 12 shillings a week. They threatened to burn down farm buildings if they were not paid and ten machines were destroyed in the Lambourn Valley from Fawley to Boxford and the movement spread northwards to the Vale of the White Horse and the Thames Valley.

Second World War plane crash

On 8th September 1944 a stricken B-24 Liberator flown by 2nd Lt Lawrence Berkoff DFC of the 856th Bombardment Squadron, 492d Bombardment Group (the Carpetbaggers), Eighth Air Force, USAAF was returning from an aborted mission. Berkoff maintained control of the plane so that his crew could parachute to safety over Baydon, but saw that if he bailed out the plane would crash into Lambourn. He therefore remained at the controls to divert the aircraft and was killed when it crash-landed in a field on Folly Road at 10:45 pm, missing the village by a few hundred yards. Berkoff was awarded a posthumous Distinguished Flying Cross and a plaque in his honour was unveiled by his great nephew Todd Berkoff at Lambourn Memorial Hall on the 26th June 2003.[32]

1953 lorry crash

On Tuesday the 13th April 1953 an articulated lorry carrying 3,600 gallons of aviation fuel suffered brake failure as it came down Hungerford Hill (now the B4000). Despite the best efforts of the driver it hit several building before overturning on the Oxford Road. The lorry exploded, destroying the tobacconist's, confectioner's, watchmaker's, jeweller's and antique dealer's shops, but only the driver was killed. The burning fuel set fire to three houses, two thatched cottages, several flats and 37 people were made homeless. It also flowed down the street and into the River Lambourn and set fire to property up to 50 yards way until the Newbury, Hungerford, Wantage, Swindon and Farringdon Fire Brigades came to help the local Lambourn Fire Brigade and brought the fires under control.[33]

1971 lurcher show

The first dog show for lurchers was held at Lambourn in 1971, which included dog racing and coursing.[34]

1991 motorway crash

At 14:15 hours on Wednesday 13th March 1991 there was a major crash on the M4 Motorway in the southernmost part of Lambourn between the Membury Service Station and Junction 14 on the eastbound carriageway. A van driver fell asleep at the wheel and stopped alongside the central crash barrier on the right hand (overtaking) lane. This obstruction was seen by the car behind him, which managed to change lanes and avoid contact. However, the cars behind where travelling at high speed (an average of 70 miles (110 km) per hour) in patchy fog and many were only one or two car lengths behind the vehicle in front. As a result they had no time to avoid the van, crashed and span out of control into the other lanes. Others took evasive action by driving onto the hard shoulder and up the sides of the cutting. These were followed by articulated lorries, one of which jack-knifed sideways across all three lanes of the motorway. One driver - Mr Alan Bateman - managed to free himself from his car and ran back down the central reservation to warn others, but was ignored and was even hooted by some drivers as they continued towards the crash.[35] The crash included 51 vehicles and lasted 19 seconds, car fuel was ignited along with the combustible material being carried in one of the vans and the eastbound motorway was closed for four days as the melted wreckage was cut away and the tarmac replaced. Ten people were killed and 25 were injured - more than the British casualties in the recent Gulf War[36] - and there were three minor crashes caused by distracted drivers on the other side of the motorway. In Parliament Sir Michael McNair-Wilson MP asked why the Thames Valley and Wiltshire Police Forces had not turned on the motorway hazard lights to warn drivers of the fog, but the Secretary of State for Transport Mr Christopher Chope MP stated that these were only used for hazards not readily apparent to drivers and not adverse weather conditions.[37] The crash led to hazard lights being used to warn drivers of fog on British motorways.


File:Lambourn Church.jpg
Lambourn under snow in February 2009

Lambourn is mentioned in the poetry of Hilaire Belloc and G. K. Chesterton, the Georgian poet John Freeman wrote "Lambourn Town" and Sir John Betjeman "Upper Lambourne". In the 1960s and 1970s the crime writer Dick Francis lived in a bungalow near Lambourn which he built himself using the money he earned as a jockey.[38]. He set several of his novels in and around Lambourn, using both real and fictional names for the locations.


  • Dick Francis, To the Hilt (1996); the painter Alexander Kinloch marries Emily at St Michaels Church.
  • Dick Francis and Felix Francis, Silks (2008); the lawyer and amateur jockey Geoffrey Mason investigates a murder in Lambourn.
  • Patrick Robinson, To The Death (2008); the terrorist General Ravi Rashood drives to Lambourn for target practice in preparation for assassinating the President of the United States.
  • Ben Osborne, The Hyperion Legacy (2008) and The Rule of Lazari (2009); the jockey Danny Rawlings is based at Millhouse Stables in Lambourn.


  • R. Smith, The Seven barrows at Lambourn (1921)
  • Martin Randall Connop Price, Lambourn Valley Railway (1964)
  • Martin Randall Connop Price, The Lambourn Valley railway. With plates (Locomotion papers. no. 32.) (1966)
  • Bridget Rennison, A Short Guide to the Parish Church of Saint Michael and All Angels Lambourn (1971)
  • T. K. Robertson, A. S. Robertson and D. A. Gray, Water Supply Papers of the Institute of Geological Sciences: Research Report No. 5: Borehole Logging Investigations in the Chalk of the Lambourn and Winterbourne Valleys' of Berkshire (1971)
  • Alan Lee, Lambourn - A Village of Racing (1982)
  • Kevin Robertson and Roger Simmonds, Illustrated History of the Lambourn Branch (1984)
  • Dick Francis. A Jockey's Life: The Biography of Lester Piggott (1986)
  • Julie Shuttleworth , Social and economic change in Lambourn Hundred, 1522-1663 (1998)
  • Robin Oakley, Valley of the Racehorse: A Year in the Life of Lambourn (2000)
  • Vic Mitchell, Kevin Smith and Kevin Robertson, Branch Lines to Lambourn (2001)
  • Vic Cross, Vic: Lambeth to Lambourn (2001) - the memoirs of Lambeth boy evacuated to Lambourn in World War II
  • Jennifer Davies, Tales of the Old Horsemen (2006)
  • Stephen Sugden, A Dick Francis Companion: Characters, Horses, Plots, Settings and Themes (2008)
  • John Footman, History of the Parish Church of Saint Michael and All Angels, Chipping Lambourn (2009)
  • Anonymous, Civil Parishes in Berkshire: Britwell, Aldermaston, Bracknell, Wokingham, Wraysbury, Burghfield, Lambourn, Sandhurst, Inkpen, Sonning (2010)
  • Anonymous, Rivers of Berkshire: River Thames, River Kennet, River Lambourn, River Pang, River Loddon, River Blackwater, Jubilee River, River Bourne
  • Anonymous, People from Lambourn: Cozy Powell, Jenny Pitman, Chris Gent, Charles Chenery, John Francome, Frederick Bates, Joshua Sylvester, Peter Walwyn

Notable residents

  • Frederick Bates, batsman for Hampshire County Cricket Club in the 1920s
  • Captain Oswald Marmeduke Dalby "Ossie" Bell, trainer of 1928 Derby winner Felstead
  • Charlie Brooks, jockey, racehorse trainer, commentator and author
  • Charles John "Charley" Chenery, 19th century footballer and cricketer
  • Felix Francis, son of Dick Francis, co-author of several novels with his father
  • Merrick Francis, son of Dick Francis, jockey, racehorse trainer and managing director of Lambourn Racehorse Transport Ltd
  • John Francome MBE, jockey, horseracing presenter and bestselling author
  • Sir Christopher Charles "Chris" Gent, former CEO and chairman of Vodafone plc
  • Sir George Clement Martin Mus. Doc., MVO, composer and organist at St Paul's Cathedral
  • Jamie Osborne, jockey and racehorse trainer
  • Keith Piggott, jockey and trainer of the 1963 Grand National winner Ayala
  • Cozy Powell, rock drummer
  • Joshua Sylvester, poet who influenced John Milton

Local institutions

  • Parish Church of St. Michael and All Angels (Church of England)
  • Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church
  • Lambourn Methodist Chapel
  • Estbury's Almshouses (1501)
  • Hardrett's Almshouses (1625)
  • Lambourn Valley Housing Trust is a registered charity, which raises money to provide homes for both retired and working stable staff.

Sport and leisure

  • Lambourn Sports Club (Est 1946): A first class members sports and social facility, with a large function hall.[39]
  • Lambourn Centre with air-conditioned Gym equipped with the latest fitness machines, Sports Hall and Sauna
  • Sports Field with Skatepark
  • Bowls club with bowling green
  • Library
  • Five Pubs
  • Lambourn Allotment Society
  • Lambourn Chimers
  • Lambourn Theatre Group
  • Lambourn Vintage Machinery Society
  • Lambourn WI
  • Lambourn Air Rifle Club
  • Lambourn Carnival with lots of events and a great procession of floats through the village and Horse Show
  • Shefford Young Farmers Club[40]


  1. p27, The Reader's Digest Complete Atlas of the British Isles, The Reader's Digest Assocation, 1965
  2. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/professional/research/landscapes-and-areas/national-mapping-programme/lambourn-downs-nmp/
  3. http://mysite.verizon.net/wghammond/Tolkien_Art.doc
  4. "Lambourn - at the heart of the valley of the racehorse". lambourn.info. http://www.lambourn.info/. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  5. "Council". lambourn.info. http://www.lambourn.info/main.asp?pid=63&child=58,38,59,64,65,121,66,75,74,118,189,123,262,&parent=0&lang=. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  6. "Election Maps". Ordnance Survey. http://www.election-maps.co.uk/. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  7. http://www.lrtltd.demon.co.uk/
  8. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/horseracing/3118279/Dick-Francis-son-Merrick-downsizing-from-his-lucky-Lambourn-yard-Horse-Racing.html
  9. http://www.directoryoftheturf.com/profile.cfm/searchid/4344
  10. http://www.ridgewayfriends.org.uk/winners.html
  11. p44, David Boyd, A Bibliographical Dictionary of Racehorse Trainers in Berkshire 1850-1939 (1998)
  12. http://www.berksfhs.org.uk/journal/Jun2002/jun2002TheSportOfKings.htm
  13. http://www.lambourn.info/main.asp?pid=270&child=0&parent=337,336,332,270,302,45,95,265,339,376,386,&lang=
  14. http://www.berksfhs.org.uk/journal/Jun2002/jun2002TheSportOfKings.htm
  15. http://www.lambourn.info/index.asp
  16. http://www.jockeyclubestates.co.uk/Pages/Page.aspx?PageName=JCELambourn-Home
  17. http://www.directoryoftheturf.com/search_results.cfm/searchcategory/Racehorse%20Trainers/searchcounty/Berkshire/searchtown/Hungerford
  18. p287, A.D. Mills, A Dictionary of British Place-Names, OUP Oxford, 2003
  19. http://www.berkshirehistory.com/villages/lambourn.html
  20. p65, John North, Stonehenge: A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and the Cosmos , The Free Press, 2007
  21. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/Treasure2004TextPart1.pdf
  22. Simon Jenkins and Paul Barker, England's Thousand Best Churches, Allen Lane, 1999
  23. p249, david Dean, Law-Making and Society in Late Elizabethan England: The Parliament of England, 1584-1601, Cambridge University Press, 2002
  24. pp123-124, Marjorie Chibnall, The Empress Matilda: Queen Consort, Queen Mother and Lady of the English, Wiley-Blackwell, 1993
  25. pp210-211, J. A. everard, Brittany and the Angevins: Province and Empire 1158-1203, Cambridge University Press, 2000
  26. p118, Graeme J. White, Restoration and Reform, 1153-1165: Recovery from Civil War in England, Cambridge University Press, 2000
  27. p25, Walter Money FSA, The First and Second Battles of Newbury and the Siege of Donnington Castle During the Civil War, AD 1643-6, The Naval and Military Press, 1881
  28. p189, Walter Money FSA, The First and Second Battles of Newbury and the Siege of Donnington Castle During the Civil War, AD 1643-6, The Naval and Military Press, 1881
  29. p189-190, Walter Money FSA, The First and Second Battles of Newbury and the Siege of Donnington Castle During the Civil War, AD 1643-6, The Naval and Military Press, 1881
  30. p245, Adrian Randall, The Moral Economy and Popular Protest: Crowds, Conflict and Authority, Palgrave Macmillan, 1999
  31. pp139-140, Eric Hobsbawm and George Rude, Captain Swing, Phoenix, 2001
  32. http://www.ramsburyatwar.com/crashes/b24lambourn.html
  33. http://www.lambourn.info/main.asp?pid=325&child=0&parent=332,334,331,325,318,316,310,308,307,305,304,303,302,301,300,299,293,&lang=
  34. p75, David Alderton, Hounds of the World, Swan Hill Press, 2000
  35. http://www.htb.org.uk/one-year-bible/wednesday-4th-november-day-308
  36. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg12917627.500-ariadne.html?page=2
  37. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1991/mar/14/accident-m4
  38. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/culture-obituaries/books-obituaries/7237004/Dick-Francis.html
  39. [http://www.lambourn.info/main.asp?pid=41&child=55,54,51,43,56,42,137,136,135,&parent=146,41,80,129,147,&lang=
    "Lambourn Sports Club"]. lambourn.info. http://www.lambourn.info/main.asp?pid=41&child=55,54,51,43,56,42,137,136,135,&parent=146,41,80,129,147,&lang=
    . Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  40. "Shefford Young Farmers Club". Shefford Young Farmers Club. http://www.sheffordyfc.org.uk/. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 

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