Jump to: navigation, search

Melioidosis

Melioidosis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A24.1-A24.4
ICD-9 025
DiseasesDB 30833
eMedicine emerg/884
MeSH D008554

Melioidosis (also called Whitmore disease or Nightcliff gardener's disease) is an infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. It is of public health importance in endemic areas, particularly in Thailand and northern Australia. It exists in acute and chronic forms. Symptoms may include pain in chest, bones, or joints; cough; skin infections, lung nodules and pneumonia.

B. pseudomallei was thought to be a member of the Pseudomonas genus and was previously known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei. It is phylogenetically related closely to Burkholderia mallei which causes glanders, an infection primarily of horses, donkeys and mules. The name Melioidosis is derived from the Greek melis meaning "a distemper of asses" with the suffixes -oid meaning "similar to" and -osis meaning "a condition" i.e. a condition similar to glanders.

Contents

Epidemiology

Melioidosis is endemic in parts of the world of southeast Asia (including Thailand,[1] Singapore,[2] Malaysia, Burma and Vietnam), Taiwan[3][4] and northern Australia.[5][6] Multiple cases have also been described in southern China[7] and Hong Kong, Brunei,[8] India,[9] and Laos, and sporadic cases in Central and South America, the Middle East, the Pacific and several African countries. Although only one case of melioidosis has ever been reported in Bangladesh,[10] at least five cases have been imported to the UK from that country, which suggests that melioidosis is endemic to that country and that there is a serious problem of underdiagnosis or under-reporting,[11] most likely due to a lack of adequate laboratory facilities.

Northeast Thailand has the highest incidence of melioidosis recorded in the world (12.7 cases of melioidosis per 100,000 people per year).[12] In Northeast Thailand, 80% of children are positive for antibodies against B. pseudomallei by the age of 4;[13] the figures are lower in other parts of the world.[14][15][16][17]

Melioidosis is a recognised disease in animals, including cats,[18] goats, sheep, and horses. Cattle, water buffalo, and crocodiles are considered to be relatively resistant to melioidosis despite their constant exposure to mud.[19] An outbreak at the Paris Zoo in the 1970s ("L’affaire du jardin des plantes") was thought to have originated from an imported panda.[20]

Burkholderia pseudomallei is normally found in soil and surface water; a history of contact with soil or surface water is therefore almost invariable in patients with melioidosis;[5] that said, the majority of patients who do have contact with infected soil suffer no ill effects. Even within an area, the distribution of B. pseudomallei within the soil can be extremely patchy.[21][22] Contaminated ground water was implicated in one outbreak in northern Australia.[23]

The single most important risk factor for developing severe melioidosis is diabetes mellitus. Other risk factors include thalassaemia, kidney disease, and occupation (rice paddy farmers).[24] The mode of infection is believed to be either through a break in the skin, or through the inhalation of aerosolized B. pseudomallei.

There is a clear association with increased rainfall: with the number (and severity) of cases increasing following increased precipitation.[25][26][2][27][28]

Clinical features

Acute melioidosis

In the subgroup of patients where an inoculating event was noted, the mean incubation period of acute melioidosis was 9 days (range 1–21 days).[29] Patients with latent melioidosis may be symptom free for decades; the longest period between presumed exposure and clinical presentation is 62 years.[30] The potential for prolonged incubation was recognized in US servicemen involved in the Vietnam War, and was referred to as the "Vietnamese time-bomb". There is a wide spectrum of severity; in chronic presentations, symptoms may last months, but fulminant infection, particularly associated with near-drowning, may present with severe symptoms over hours.

A patient with active melioidosis usually presents with fever. Pain or other symptoms may be suggestive of a clinical focus, which is found in around 75% of patients. Such symptoms include cough or pleuritic chest pain suggestive of pneumonia, bone or joint pain suggestive of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis, or cellulitis. Intra-abdominal infection (including liver and/or splenic abscesses, or prostatic abscesses) do not usually present with focal pain, and imaging of these organs using ultrasound or CT should be performed routinely. In one series of 214 patients, 27.6% had abscesses in the liver or spleen (95% confidence interval, 22.0% to 33.9%). It has been suggested that B. pseudomallei abscesses have a characteristic "honeycomb" or "swiss cheese" architecture (hypoechoic, multi-septate, multiloculate) on CT.[31][32]

There are regional variations in disease presentation: parotid abscesses characteristically occur in Thai children but this presentation has only been described once in Australia.[33] Conversely, prostatic abscesses are found in up to 20% of Australian males but are rarely described elsewhere. An encephalomyelitis syndrome is recognised in northern Australia.

Patients with melioidosis usually have risk factors for disease, such as diabetes, thalassemia, hazardous alcohol use or renal disease, and frequently give a history of occupational or recreational exposure to mud or pooled surface water.[34] However, otherwise healthy patients, including children, may also get melioidosis.

In up to 25% of patients, no focus of infection is found and the diagnosis is usually made on blood cultures or throat swab. Melioidosis is said to be able to affect any organ in the body except the heart valves (endocarditis). Although meningitis has been described secondary to ruptured brain abscesses, primary meningitis has not been described. Less common manifestations include intravascular infection, lymph node abscesses (1.2–2.2%),[35] pyopericardium and myocarditis, mediastinal infection, and thyroid and scrotal abscesses and ocular infection.

Chronic melioidosis

Chronic melioidosis is usually defined by a duration of symptoms greater than 2 months and occurs in approximately 10% of patients. The clinical presentation of chronic melioidosis is protean and includes such presentations as chronic skin infection, skin ulcers and lung nodules or chronic pneumonia, closely mimicking tuberculosis, sometimes being called "Vietnamese tuberculosis".[36]

Diagnosis

A definitive diagnosis is made by culturing the organism from any clinical sample.

A definite history of contact with soil may not be elicited as melioidosis can be dormant for many years before manifesting.[37] Attention should be paid to a history of travel to endemic areas in returned travellers. Some authors recommend considering possibility of melioidosis in every febrile patient with a history of traveling to and/or staying at endemic areas.

A complete screen (blood culture, sputum culture, urine culture, throat swab and culture of any aspirated pus) should be performed on all patients with suspected melioidosis (culture on blood agar as well as Ashdown's medium). A definitive diagnosis is made by growing B. pseudomallei from any site. A throat swab is not sensitive but is 100% specific if positive, and compares favourably with sputum culture.[38] The sensitivity of urine culture is increased if a centrifuged specimen is cultured, and any bacterial growth should be reported (not just growth above 104 organisms/ml which is the usual cut off).[39] Very occasionally, bone marrow culture may be positive in patients who have negative blood cultures for B. pseudomallei, but these are not usually recommended.[40] A common error made by clinicians unfamiliar with melioidosis is to only send a specimen from the affected site (which is the usual procedure for most other infections) instead of sending a full screen.

Ashdown's medium, a selective medium containing gentamicin, may be required for cultures taken from non-sterile sites. Burkholderia cepacia medium may be a useful alternative selective medium in non-endemic areas, where Ashdown's is not available. A new medium derived from Ashdown known as Francis medium may help differentiate B. pseudomallei from B. cepacia and may help in the early diagnosis of melioidosis,[41] but has not yet been extensively clinically validated.

Many commercial kits for identifying bacteria may mis-identify B. pseudomallei (see Burkholderia pseudomallei for a more detailed discussion of these issues).

There is also a serological test for melioidosis (indirect haemagglutination), but this is not commercially available in most countries. A high background titre may reduce the positive predictive value of serological tests in endemic countries. A specific direct immunofluorescent test and latex agglutination, based on monoclonal antibodies, are used widely in Thailand but are not available elsewhere.

It is not possible to make the diagnosis on imaging studies alone (X-rays and scans),[42] but imaging is routinely performed to assess the full extent of disease.[43] Imaging of the abdomen using CT scans or ultrasound is recommended routinely, as abscesses may not be clinically apparent and may coexist with disease elsewhere. Australian authorities suggest imaging of the prostate specifically due to the high incidence of prostatic abscesses in northern Australian patients. A chest x-ray is also considered routine, with other investigations as clinically indicated. The presence of honeycomb abscesses in the liver are considered characteristic, but are not diagnostic.[42][43]

The differential diagnosis is extensive; melioidosis may mimic many other infections, including tuberculosis.[36]

Treatment

Current treatment

The treatment of melioidosis is divided into two stages, an intravenous high intensity stage and an oral maintenance stage to prevent recurrence.

Intravenous intensive phase. </dt>

Intravenous ceftazidime is the current drug of choice for treatment of acute melioidosis.[44][45] Meropenem[46], imipenem[29] and cefoperazone-sulbactam (Sulperazone)[47] are also active.[48] Intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanate (co-amoxiclav) may be used if none of the above four drugs are available, but it produces inferior outcomes.[49] Intravenous antibiotics are given for a minimum of 10 to 14 days, and are not usually stopped until the patient's temperature has returned to normal for more than 48 hours: it is not uncommon for patients to require parenteral treatment continuously for more than a month.
Intravenous meropenem is routinely used in Australia: outcomes appear to be good and meropenem is currently being tested with ceftazidime in a Thai clinical trial (ATOM).[50] There are theoretical reasons for believing that mortality might be lower in patients treated with imipenem: first, there is less endotoxin released by dying bacteria during imimipenem treatment,[51] and the mean inhibitory concentration for imipenem is lower than for ceftazidime. However, no clinically relevant difference was found in mortality between imipenem and ceftazidime treatment.[29] The MIC of meropenem is higher for B. pseudomallei than for many other organisms, and patients being haemofiltered will need more frequent or higher doses.[52]
Cefepime and ertapenem do not appear to be effective in vitro.[53] Piperacillin-sulbactam[53], doripenem and biapenem[54] appear to be effective in vitro, but there is no clinical experience on which to recommend their use.
Adjunctive treatment with GCSF[55] or co-trimoxazole[56][57] were not associated with decreased fatality rates in trials in Thailand.

Eradication phase. </dt>

Following the treatment of the acute disease, it is recommended that eradication (or maintenance) treatment with co-trimoxazole and doxycycline be used for 12 to 20 weeks to reduce the rate of recurrence.[58] Chloramphenicol is no longer routinely recommended for this purpose. Co-amoxiclav is an alternative for those patients who are unable to take co-trimoxazole and doxycycline (e.g., pregnant women and children under the age of 12),[59][60] but is not as effective. Single agent treatment with a fluoroquinolone[61] or doxycycline for the oral maintenance phase is ineffective.[62]
In Australia, co-trimoxazole is used on its own for eradication therapy,[50] with relapse rates that are lower than those seen in Thailand; there is also in vitro evidence to suggest that co-trimoxazole and doxycycline are antagonistic, and that co-trimoxazole on its own may be preferable.[63] A randomised controlled trial (MERTH) to compare this with the current standard of co-trimoxazole and doxycycline started in 2006 and is due for completion in 2008. Studies reinforce the need for adequate follow up and good adherence to the eradication phase of therapy. Dosing for co-trimoxazole is based on weight: (<40 kg: 160/800 mg every 12 hours; 40–60kg: 240/1200 mg every 12 hours, >60 kg: 320/1600 mg every 12 hours).[64]

Surgical treatment

Surgical drainage is usually indicated for prostatic abscesses and septic arthritis, may be indicated for parotid abscesses and not usually indicated for hepatosplenic abscesses. In bacteraemic melioidosis unresponsive to intravenous antibiotic therapy, splenectomy has been attempted, but there is only anecdotal evidence to support this practice.[65]

Historical treatment

Prior to 1989, the standard treatment for acute melioidosis was a three-drug combination of chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and doxycycline; this regimen is associated with a mortality rate of 80% and should no longer be used unless no other alternatives are available.[44] All four drugs are bacteriostatic (they stop the bacterium from growing but do not kill it) and the action of co-trimoxazole antagonizes both chloramphenicol and doxycycline.[66]

Prognosis

Without access to appropriate antibiotics (principally ceftazidime or meropenem), the septicemic form of melioidosis has a mortality rate that exceeds 90%.[67][68] With appropriate antibiotics, the mortality rate is about 10% for uncomplicated cases but up to 80% for cases with bacteraemia or severe sepsis. It seems certain that access to intensive care facilities is also important, and probably at least partially explains why total mortality is 20% in Northern Australia but 40% in Northeast Thailand. Response to appropriate antibiotic treatment is slow with the average duration of fever following treatment being 5–9 days.[5][69]

Recurrence occurs in 10 to 20% of patients. While molecular studies have established that the majority of recurrences are due to the original infecting strain, a significant proportion of recurrences (perhaps up to a quarter) in endemic areas may be due to reinfection, particularly after 2 years.[70] Risk factors include severity of disease (patients with positive blood cultures or multifocal disease have a higher risk of relapse), choice of antibiotic for eradication therapy (doxycycline monotherapy and fluoroquinolone therapy are not as effective), poor compliance with eradication therapy and duration of eradication therapy less than 8 weeks.[62][71]

Prevention

There are only few unusual cases documented for person-to-person transmission; and patients with melioidosis should not be considered contagious. Lab workers should handle Burkholderia pseudomallei under BSL-3 isolation conditions, as laboratory acquired melioidosis has been described. Following laboratory exposure, post exposure prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole has been suggested but has not been evaluated by clinical trials.

In endemic areas, people (rice-paddy farmers in particular) are warned to avoid contact with soil, mud and surface water where possible. Case clusters have been described following flooding and cyclones and probably relate to exposure. Other case clusters have related to contamination of drinking water supplies. Populations at risk include patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, chronic lung disease or patients with an immune deficiency of any kind. The effectiveness of measures to reduce exposure to the causative organism have not been established. A vaccine is not yet available.

Post-exposure prophylaxis

After exposure to B. pseudomallei (particularly following a laboratory accident) combined treatment with co-trimoxazole and doxycycline is recommended.[72][73] Trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin have been shown to be effective in animal models.[74]

Biological warfare potential

There has been interest in melioidosis because it has the potential to be developed as a biological weapon. It is classed by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as a Category B agent.[75] B. pseudomallei, like its relative B. mallei which causes Glanders, was studied by the U.S. as a potential biological warfare agent, but was never weaponized.[76] It has been reported that the Soviet Union was also experimenting with B. pseudomallei as a biological warfare agent.

Synonyms

  • pseudoglanders
  • Whitmore's disease (after Captain Alfred Whitmore, who first described the disease)[77]
  • Nightcliff gardener's disease (Nightcliff is a suburb of Darwin, Australia where melioidosis is endemic)[78]
  • Paddy-field disease[79]

References

  1. V Vuddhakul et al. (1999). "Epidemiology of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Thailand". Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 (3): 458–461. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lo TJ, Ang LW, James L, Goh KT (2009). "Melioidosis in a tropical city state, Singapore". Emerg Infect Dis 15 (10): 1645–7. PMID 19861063. 
  3. Ko WC; Cheung, BM; Tang, HJ; Shih, HI; Lau, YJ; Wang, LR; Chuang, YC (2007). "Melioidosis outbreak after typhoon, southern Taiwan". Emerg Infect Dis 13 (6): 896–8. PMID 17553230. 
  4. Chen YS, Lin HH, Mu JJ, Chiang CS, Chen CH, Buu LM, Lin YE, Chen YL (2010). "Distribution of melioidosis cases and viable Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil: Evidence for emerging melioidosis in Taiwan". J Clin Microbiol 48 (4): 1432–4. doi:10.1128/JCM.01720-09. PMID 20147639. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 White NJ (2003). "Melioidosis". Lancet 361 (9370): 1715–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13374-0. PMID 12767750. 
  6. Cheng AC, Currie BJ (2005). "Melioidosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management". Clin Microbiol Rev 18 (2): 383–416. doi:10.1128/CMR.18.2.383-416.2005. PMID 15831829. 
  7. Yang S (2000). "Melioidosis research in China". Acta Tropica 77 (2): 157–165. doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(00)00139-X. 
  8. Chong VH (2010). "Changing spectrum of microbiology of liver abscess: Now Klebsiella, next Burkholderia pseudomallei". J Emerg Med. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.10.027. PMID 20079999. 
  9. Chugh TD (2008). "Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India". J Biosci 33 (4): 549–55. doi:10.1007/s12038-008-0073-0. PMID 19208980. 
  10. Struelens MJ, Mondol G, Bennish M, Dance DAB (1998). "Melioidosis in Bangladesh: a case report". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hygiene 82: 777–78. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(88)90234-9. 
  11. Dance DAB, Smith MD, Aucken HM, Pitt TL (1999). "Imported melioidosis in England and Wales". Lancet 353: 208. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)77217-2. 
  12. Limmathurotsakul D, Wongratanacheewin S, Teerawattanasook N, (2010). "Increasing incidence of human melioidosis in Northeast Thailand". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 82 (6): 1113–1117. PMID 20519609. 
  13. Kanaphun P, Thirawattanasuk N, Suputtamongkol Y, et al. (1993). "Serology and carriage of Pseudomonas pseudomallei: a prospective study in 1000 hospitalized children in northeast Thailand". J infect Dis 167: 230–3. 
  14. Vuddhakul V, Tharavichitkul P, Na-Ngam N, et al. (March 1999). "Epidemiology of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Thailand". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60 (3): 458–61. PMID 10466977. http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10466977. 
  15. Kanai K, Dejsirilert S (August 1988). "Pseudomonas pseudomallei and melioidosis, with special reference to the status in Thailand". Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 41 (4): 123–57. PMID 3075004. 
  16. Yang S, Tong S, Mo C, et al. (1998). "Prevalence of human melioidosis on Hainan Island in China". Microbiol. Immunol. 42 (9): 651–4. PMID 9802565. 
  17. Chen YS, Chen SC, Wu TR, Kao CM, Chen YL (October 2004). "Seroprevalence of anti-flagellin antibody against Burkholderia pseudomallei in Taiwan". Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 57 (5): 224–5. PMID 15507783. http://www.nih.go.jp/JJID/57/224.html. 
  18. Parkes, Helen M.; Shilton, Catherine M.; Jerrett, Ian V.; Benedict, Suresh; Spratt, Brian G.; Godoy, Daniel; O'Brien, Carolyn R.; Krockenberger, Mark B. et al. (2009). "Primary ocular melioidosis due to a single genotype of Burkholderia pseudomallei in two cats from Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia". J Feline Med Surg 11 (10): 856. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2009.02.009. PMID 19428280. 
  19. Sprague LD, Neubauer H (2004). "Melioidosis in Animals: A review on epizootiology, diagnosis and clinical presentation". J Vet Med B 51: 305–20. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0450.2004.00797.x. 
  20. Mollaret HH (1988). "«L'affaire du Jardin des plantes» ou comment le mélioïdose fit son apparition en France". Médecine et maladies infectieuses 18 (Suppl 4): 643–54. doi:10.1016/S0399-077X(88)80175-6. 
  21. Corkeron ML, Norton R, Nelson PN (2010). "Spatial analysis of melioidosis distribution in a suburban area". Epidemiol Infect 22: 1–7. doi:10.1017/S0950268809991634. PMID 20092666. 
  22. Chantratita N, Wuthiekanun V, Limmathurotsakul D, et al. (2008). "Genetic diversity and microevolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 2 (2): e182. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000182. PMID 18299706. 
  23. Inglis TJ, Garrow SC, Henderson M, Clair A, Sampson J, O'Reilly L, Cameron B (2000). "Burkholderia pseudomallei traced to water treatment plant in Australia". Emerg Infect Dis 6 (1): 56–59. PMID 10653571. 
  24. Suputtamongkol Y, Chaowagul W, Chetchotisakd P, et al. (1999). "Risk factors for melioiosis and bacteremic melioidosis". Clin Infect Dis 29: 408–13. doi:10.1086/520223. 
  25. Suputtamongkol Y, Hall AJ, Dance DAB, et al. (1994). "The epidemiology of melioidosis in Ubon Ratchatani, Northeast Thailand". Int J Epidemiol 23 (5): 1082–89. doi:10.1093/ije/23.5.1082. PMID 7860160. 
  26. Currie BJ, Jacups SP (December 2003). "Intensity of rainfall and severity of melioidosis, Australia" (– Scholar search). Emerging Infect. Dis. 9 (12): 1538–42. PMID 14720392. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no12/02-0750. 
  27. Liu Y, Loh JP, Aw LT, Yap EPH, Lee MA, Ooi EE (2006). "Rapid molecular typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei, isolated in an outbreak of melioidosis in Singapore in 2004, based on variable-number tandem repeats". Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: 687–92. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.08.017. 
  28. Sam I-C, Puthucheary SD (2007). "Melioidosis and rainfall in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia". J Infect 54 (5): 519–20. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2006.07.007. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 A J Simpson, Suputtamongkol Y, Smith MD, et al. (1999). "Comparison of imipenem and ceftazidime as therapy for severe melioidosis". Clin Infect Dis 29 (2): 381–387. doi:10.1086/520219. PMID 10476746. 
  30. Ngauy V, Lemeshev Y, Sadkowski L, Crawford G (2005). "Cutaneous melioidosis in a man who was taken as a prisoner of war by the Japanese during World War II". J Clin Microb 43 (2): 970–2. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.2.970-972.2005. PMID 15695721. 
  31. Apisarnthanarak A, Apisarnthanarak P, Mundy LM. (2006). "Computer tomography characteristics of Burkholderia pseudomallei liver abscess". Clin Infect Dis 42: 989–93. doi:10.1086/501017. 
  32. Laopaiboon V, Chamadol N, Buttham H, Sukeepaisarnjareon W (2009). "CT findings of liver and splenic abscesses in melioidosis: comparison with those in non-melioidosis". J Med Assoc Thai 92 (11): 1476–84. PMID 19938740. 
  33. Dance DA, Davis TM, Wattanagoon Y, et al. (1989). "Acute suppurative parotitis caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei in children". J Infect Dis 159 (4): 654–60. PMID 2926159. 
  34. Raja, NS; Ahmed MZ, Singh NN (1 April 2005). "Melioidosis: an emerging infectious disease". Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 51 (2): 140–45. PMID 16006713. http://www.jpgmonline.com/article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=2005;volume=51;issue=2;spage=140;epage=145;aulast=Raja. 
  35. Chlebicki, MP; Tan BH (2006). "Six cases of suppurative lymphadenitis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei infection". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100 (8): 798–801. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.10.004. PMID 16542691. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 Falade OO, Antonarakis ES, Kaul DR, Saint S, Murphy PA (2008). "Clinical problem-solving. Beware of first impressions". N Engl J Med 359: 628–634. doi:10.1056/NEJMcps0708803. 
  37. Ngauy V, Lemeshev Y, Sadkowski L, Crawford G (2005). "Cutaneous melioidosis in a man who was taken as a prisoner of war by the Japanese during World War II". J Clin Microbiol 43 (2): 970–972. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.2.970-972.2005. 
  38. Wuthiekanun V, Suputtamongkol Y, Simpson AJH, Kanaphun P, White NJ (2001). "Value of throat swab in the diagnosis of melioidosis". J Clin Microbiol 39 (10): 3801–02. doi:10.1128/JCM.39.10.3801-3802.2001. PMID 11574624. 
  39. Limmathurotsakul D,Wuthiekanun V,Chierakul W, et al. (2005). "Role and significance of quantitative urine cultures in diagnosis of melioidosis". J Clin Microb 43 (5): 2274–76. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.5.2274-2276.2005. PMID 15872255. 
  40. Dance DA, White NJ, Suputtamongkol Y, Wattanagoon Y, Wuthiekanun V, Chaowagul W (1990). "The use of bone marrow culture for the diagnosis of melioidosis". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 (4): 585–7. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(90)90050-O. PMID 2091358. 
  41. Francis A, Aiyar S, Yean C, Naing L, Ravichandran M (2006). "An improved selective and differential medium for the isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei from clinical specimens". Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 55 (2): 95–99. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2005.11.008. 
  42. 42.0 42.1 Lim KS, Chong VH (2010). "Radiological manifestations of melioidosis". Clin Radiol 65 (1): 66–72. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2009.08.008. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 Muttarak M, Peh WC, Euathrongchit J, Lin SE, Tan AG, Lerttumnongtum P, Sivasomboon C (2008). "Spectrum of imaging findings in melioidosis". Br J Radiol 82 (978): 514–21. doi:10.1259/bjr/15785231. PMID 19098086. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 White NJ, Dance DA, Chaowagul W, et al. (1989). "Halving of mortality of severe melioidosis by ceftazidime". Lancet 2 (8665): 697–701. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(89)90768-X. PMID 2570956. 
  45. Chierakul W, Anunnatsiri S, Chaowagul W, et al. (2007). "Addition of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to ceftazidime during parenteral treatment of melioidosis is not associated with a long-term outcome benefit". Clin infect Dis 45 (4): 521–523. doi:10.1086/521444 (inactive 2010-03-17). 
  46. Cheng AC, Fisher DA, Anstey NM, et al. (2004). "Outcomes of patients with melioidosis treated with meropenem". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48 (5): 1763–65. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.5.1763-1765.2004. PMID 15105132. 
  47. Chetchotisakd P, Porramatikul S, Mootsikapun P, Anunnatsiri S, Thinkhamrop B (2001). "Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of cefoperazone-sulbactam plus cotrimoxazole versus ceftazidime plus cotrimoxazole for the treatment of severe melioidosis". Clin Infect Dis 33 (1): 29–3. doi:10.1086/320878. PMID 11389491. 
  48. Dance DA, Wuthiekanun V, White NJ, Chaowagul W (1988). "Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas pseudomallei". Lancet 1 (8592): 994–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(88)91810-7. PMID 2896855. 
  49. Suputtamongkol Y, Rajchanuwong A, Chaowagul W, et al. (1994). "Ceftazidime vs. amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of severe melioidosis". Clin Infect Dis 19: 846–53. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 Currie BJ, Fisher DA, Howard DM, et al. (2000). "Endemic melioidosis in tropical Northern Australia: a 10-year prospective study and review of the literature". Clin Infect Dis 31: 981–86. doi:10.1086/318116. PMID 11049266. 
  51. Simpson, A. J. H.; Opal, S. M.; Angus, B. J.; Prins, J. M.; Palardy, J. E.; Parejo, N. A.; Chaowagul, W.; White, N. J. (2000). "Differential antibiotic-induced endotoxin release in severe melioidosis". J Infect Dis 181: 1014–9. doi:10.1086/315306. 
  52. Template:Pmid
  53. 53.0 53.1 Shih H-I, Chuang Y-C, Cheung BM-H, et al. (February 2008). "Sporadic and outbreak cases of melioidosis in southern Taiwan: clinical features and antimicrobial susceptibility". Infection 37 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1007/s15010-008-7324-8. PMID 18854938. 
  54. Thamlikitkul V, Trakulsomboon S (2010). "In vitro activity of biapenem against Burkholderia pseudomallei". International journal of antimicrobial agents 35 (5): 514. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.01.002. PMID 20188524. 
  55. Cheng AC, Limmathurotsakul D, Chierakul W, et al. (2007). "A randomized controlled trial of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for the treatment of severe sepsis due to melioidosis in Thailand". Clin Infect Dis 45 (3): 308–14. doi:10.1086/519261. PMID 17599307. 
  56. Chierakul W, Anunnatsiri S, Short JM, et al. (2005). "Two randomized controlled trials of ceftazidime alone versus ceftazidime in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of severe melioidosis". Clin Infect Dis 41 (8): 1105–13. doi:10.1086/444456. PMID 16163628. 
  57. Chierakul W, Anunnatsiri S, Chaowagul W, Peacock SJ, Chetchotisakd P, Day NP (2007). "Addition of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to ceftazidime during parenteral treatment of melioidosis is not associated with a tong-term outcome benefit". Clin Infect Dis 45 (4): 521–3. doi:10.1086/520010. PMID 17638209. 
  58. Chaowagul W, Simpson AJ, Suputtamongkol Y, et al. (1999). "A comparison of chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline with doxycycline alone as maintenance therapy for melioidosis". Clin Infect Dis 29: 375–80. doi:10.1086/520218. 
  59. Rajchanuvong A, Chaowagul W, Suputtamongkol Y, Smith MD, Dance DA, White NJ. (1995). "A prospective comparison of co-amoxiclav and the combination of chloramphenicol, doxycycline, and co-trimoxazole for the oral maintenance treatment of melioidosis". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 (5): 546–9. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(95)90104-3. PMID 8560537. 
  60. Cheng AC, Chierakul W, Chaowagul W, et al. (2008). "Consensus guidelines for dosing of amoxicillin-clavulanate in melioidosis". Am J Trop Med Hyg 78 (2): 208–9. PMID 18256414. 
  61. Chaowagul W, Supputtamongkul Y, Smith MD, White NJ. (1997). "Oral fluoroquinolones for maintenance treatment of melioidosis". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 599–601. doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(97)90044-4. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 Limmathurotsakul D, Chaowagul W, Chierakul Wirongrong, et al. (2006). "Risk factors for recurrent melioidosis in Northeastern Thailand". Clin Infect Dis 43 (8): 979–86. doi:10.1086/507632. PMID 16983608. 
  63. Dance DA, Wuthiekanun V, Chaowagul W, White NJ (1989). "Interactions in vitro between agents used to treat melioidosis". J Antimicrob Chemother 24 (3): 311–6. doi:10.1093/jac/24.3.311. PMID 2681117. 
  64. Cheng AC, McBryde ES, Wuthiekanun V, Chierakul W, Amornchai P, Day NPJ, Peacock SJ (2009). "Dosing regimens of cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) for melioidosis". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 (10): 4193. doi:10.1128/AAC.01301-08. PMID 19620336. 
  65. TJ Inglis, CL Golledge, A Clair, and J Harvey (2001). "Case report: recovery from persistent septicemic melioidosis". Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 (1): 76–82. PMID 11504412. 
  66. Dance DA, Wuthiekanun V, Chaowagul W, White NJ (1989). "Interactions in vitro between agents used to treat melioidosis". J Antimicrob Chemother 24 (3): 311–6. doi:10.1093/jac/24.3.311. PMID 2681117. 
  67. Couture E (1935). Rev Hyg Méd prèv 57: 190. 
  68. Warner JM, Pelowa DB, Currie BJ, Hirst RG (2007). "Melioidosis in a rural community of Western Province, Papua New Guinea". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101 (8): 809. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.02.024. PMID 17499321. 
  69. Chaowagul W, White NJ, Dance DA, et al. (1989). "Melioidosis: a major cause of community-acquired septicemia in northeastern Thailand". J Infect Dis 159 (5): 890–9. 
  70. Maharjan B, Chantratita N, Vesaratchavest M, et al. (2005). "Recurrent melioidosis in patients in northeast Thailand is frequently due to reinfection rather than relapse". J Clin Microbiol 43 (12): 6032–4. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.12.6032-6034.2005. PMID 16333094. 
  71. Chaowagul W, Suputtamongkol Y, Dance DA, Rajchanuvong A, Pattara-arechachai J, White NJ (1993). "Relapse in melioidosis: incidence and risk factors". J Infect Dis 168 (5): 1181–85. PMID 8228352. 
  72. Sivalingam SP, Sim SH, Jasper LC, et al. (2008). "Pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of experimental Burkholderia pseudomallei infection with doxycycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole". J Antimicrob Chemother 61 (3): 674–8. doi:10.1093/jac/dkm527. PMID 18192684. 
  73. Peacock SJ, Schweizer HP, Dance DAB, et al. (2008). "Management of accidental laboratory exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei and B.–mallei". Emerg Infect Dis 14 (7): e2. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071501. PMID 18598617. 
  74. Kenny DJ, Sefton AM, Brooks TJ, Laws TR, Simpson AJ, Atkins HS (2010). "Evaluation of azithromycin, trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin as prophylaxis for experimental murine melioidosis". Int J Antimicrob Agents. PMID 20462743. 
  75. CDC Disease Info melioidosis_g
  76. Woods JB (ed.) (2005) (PDF). USAMRIID's Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook (6th ed.). Fort Detrick, Maryland: U.S. Army Medical Institute of Infectious Diseases. pp. 67. http://www.usamriid.army.mil/education/bluebookpdf/USAMRIID%20BlueBook%206th%20Edition%20-%20Sep%202006.pdf. 
  77. Whitmore A, Krishnaswami CS (1912). "An account of the discovery of a hitherto undescribed infective disease occurring among the population of Rangoon". Indian Med Gaz 92: 262–7. 
  78. Barker A (19 June 2005). "Rise in melioidosis rates in NT". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2005/s1285014.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  79. Orellana C (November 2004). "Melioidosis strikes Singapore". Lancet Infect Dis 4 (11): 655. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01190-9. PMID 15534940. 


External links



Share

Premier Equine Classifieds

Subscribe

Subscribe to our newsletter and keep abreast of the latest news, articles and information delivered directly to your inbox.

Did You Know?

Modern horse breeds developed in response to a need for "form to function", the necessity to develop certain physical characteristics in order to perform a certain type of work... More...


The Gypsy Cob was originally bred to be a wagon horse and pulled wagons or caravans known as Vardos; a type of covered wagon that people lived in... More...


Archaeological evidence indicates that the Arabian horse bloodline dates back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses spread around the world by both war and trade.... More...


That the term "Sporthorse" is a term used to describe a type of horse rather than any particular breed... More...