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List of horse breeds

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Light or saddle horse breeds
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Heavy or draft horse breeds
This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. A breed is defined generally as a viable true-breeding population, and its members are called "purebreds." In most cases, bloodlines are recorded with a breed registry. However, in horses, the concept is somewhat flexible, as open stud books are created for fairly new types of horses that are not yet fully true-breeding. Registries also are considered the authority as to whether a given breed is listed as a "horse" or a "pony." There are also a number of "color breed", sport horse, and gaited horse registries for horses with various phenotypes or other traits, which admit any animal fitting a given set of physical characteristics, even if there is minimal or no evidence of the trait being a true-breeding characteristic. Other recording entities or specialty organizations may recognize horses from multiple breeds, thus, for the purposes of this article, such animals are classified as a "type" rather than a "breed."

For additional information, see horse breed, horse breeding and the individual articles listed below. Additional articles on different breeds may be listed under and.

Contents

Horse breeds

Horses are members of Equus ferus caballus that generally mature to be 14.2 hands (58 inches (150 cm)) or taller, but many breed registries do accept animals under this height and classify them as "horses," as horse characteristics include factors other than height. For the purposes of this page, if a breed registry or stud book classifies the breed as a horse, it is listed here as a horse, even if some representatives are pony-sized or have some pony characteristics. Pony breeds are listed in the next section, below.

A-C

  • American Indian Horse
  • Andalusian horse some bloodlines also called Pura Raza Española (PRE) or Pure Spanish-bred
  • AraAppaloosa, also called Ara-Appaloosa, Arappaloosa or Araloosa

  • Australian Brumby, see Brumby
  • Banker Horse
  • Bashkir Curly, see Curly horse

  • Castilian Horse
  • Colonial Spanish Horse, see Types of Horses, below

D-K

  • Faroese or Faroe horse, see Faroe pony in pony section
  • Fleuve, see Fouta

  • German Warmblood or ZfDP, see Types section, below

  • Karossier see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger

L-R

  • Mezőhegyesi sport-horse (sportló), also called</br> Mezőhegyes felver, see Hungarian Warmblood
  • Misaki, see pony section
  • Mongolian Horse

  • Noma, see Noma pony, in Pony section
  • Orlov trotter

  • Przewalski's Horse, also known as Takhi, Mongolian Wild Horse or Asian Wild Horse. (Species, not a "breed" but listed here for convenience)

S-Z

  • Vyatka, see pony section
  • Waler horse, also known as Waler or Australian</br> Waler
  • Warmblood, see "Types of horses" below, or</br> individual warmblood breed articles
  • Welsh Cob (Section D), see Welsh pony
  • Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka, Zhumd,</br> Zhemaichu, or Zhmudk, see Pony section.

Pony breeds

Ponies are usually classified as members of Equus caballus that mature at less than 14.2 hands. However, some pony breeds may occasionally have individuals who mature over 14.2 but retain all other breed characteristics. There are also some breeds that now frequently mature over 14.2 hands due to modern nutrition and management, yet retain the historic classification "pony." For the purposes of this list, if a breed registry classifies the breed as a "pony," it is listed here as such, even if some individuals have horse characteristics.

(Please note: Because of this designation by the preference of a given breed registry, most miniature horse breeds are listed as "horses," not ponies)

A-K

  • Anadolu pony also called Anadolu Ati
  • Ariegeois pony also called Merens Pony </br>or Ariègeois
  • Asturian pony, see Asturcon in horse section
  • Bhutia Pony, also Bhotia, Bhote ghoda, Bhutan,</br> Bhutani, Bhutua see Indian Country Bred
  • Boer Pony
  • British Riding Pony, see Riding Pony in "types</br> of horses" section

  • Carpathian Pony, see Hucul Pony
  • Canadian rustic pony
  • Caspian pony
  • Dartmoor pony
  • Eriskay pony
  • Exmoor pony
  • Fell Pony

  • Highland Pony, see also Garron
  • Hucul Pony
  • Hunter Pony, see "types of horses" section

L-Z

  • Merens Pony, see Ariegeois pony
  • Miniature horse, see horse section
  • New Forest Pony

  • Riding Pony, see "types of</br> horses" section
  • Sardinian Pony, see Sardinian horse
  • Spiti Pony, see Indian Country Bred
  • Tibetan Pony

  • Virginia highlander, see horse section
  • Welsh pony
  • Welsh mountain pony (Section A), see</br> Welsh Pony
  • Welsh pony of cob type (Section C),</br> see Welsh Pony
  • Yakut Pony, see Yakutian horse
  • Yonaguni, see horse section
  • Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka,</br> Zhumd, Zhemaichu, or Zhmudka

Color "breeds"

There are some registries that accept horses (and sometimes ponies and mules) of almost any breed or type for registration. Color is either the only criterion for registration or the primary criterion. These are called "color breeds," because unlike "true" horse breeds, there are few other physical requirements, nor is the stud book limited in any fashion. As a general rule, the color also does not always breed on (in some cases due to genetic impossibility), and offspring without the stated color are usually not eligible for recording with the color breed registry. The best-known color breed registries are for the following colors:

There are breeds that have color that usually breeds "true" as well as distinctive physical characteristics and a limited stud book. These horses are true breeds that have a preferred color, not color breeds, and include the Friesian horse, the Cleveland Bay, the Appaloosa, and the American Paint Horse.

Types of horses

A "type" of horse is not a breed but is simply a term used to describe a group of breeds that are similar in appearance (phenotype) or use. A type usually has no breed registry, and often encompasses several breeds. However, in some nations, particularly in Europe, there is a recording method or means of studbook selection for certain types to allow them to be licensed for breeding. Horses of a given type may be registered as one of several different recognized breeds, or a term may include horses that are of no particular pedigree but meet a certain standard of appearance or use.

Modern types

  • AQPS ("Autre Que Pur-Sang"), French designation for riding horses "other than Thoroughbred," usually referring to the Anglo-Arabian, Selle Francais and other Thoroughbred crosses. There is a registry for AQPS horses in France.
  • Canadian Cutting Horse
  • Colonial Spanish Horse, the original Jennet-type horse brought to North America, now with a number of modern descendants with various breed names.
  • Feral horse, a horse living in the wild, but descended from once-domesticated ancestors. Most "wild" horses today are actually feral. The only true wild (never domesticated) horse in the world today is the Przewalski's horse.
  • Galloway, a term used in Australia to collectively refer to show horses over 14 hands but under 15 hands.
  • German Warmblood or ZfDP, collective term for any of the various warmblood horses of Germany, of which some may be registered with the nation-wide German Horse Breeding Society (ZfDP).
  • Grade horse, a term used to describe a horse of unknown or mixed breed parentage.
  • Hack, a basic riding horse, particularly in the UK, also includes Show hack horses used in competition.
  • Heavy warmblood, heavy carriage and riding horses, predecessors to the modern warmbloods, several old-style breeds still in existence today.
  • Hunter pony, a show hunter or show jumping animal under 14.2 hands, may be actually of a horse or pony breed, height determines category of competition.
  • Iberian horse, encompassing horse and pony breeds developed in the Iberian peninsula, including the Andalusian, Lusitano and others.
  • Mountain and moorland or "M&M" is a general term which covers several breeds of pony native to the British Isles.
  • Oriental horse, referring to the "hot-blooded" breeds descended from the Oriental prototype under the "Four Foundations" theory, below.
  • Riding Pony, a term used in the United Kingdom to describe certain types of show ponies.
  • Sport horse or Sporthorse, includes any breeds suitable for use in assorted international competitive disciplines governed by the FEI.
  • ZfDP, see German Warmblood, above.

Archaic types

Prior to approximately the 13th century, few pedigrees were written down, and horses were classified by physical type or use. Thus, many terms for Horses in the Middle Ages did not describe breeds as we know them today, but rather described appearance or purpose. These terms included:

  • Jennet, sometimes called Spanish Jennet

Extinct species and breeds

These horses and ponies either were a recognized, distinct breed of horse that no longer exists as such, or varieties of Equus ferus caballus that have become extinct at some point since domestication of the horse. This section does not include any species within evolution of the horse prior to modern Equus caballus.

The "Four Foundations" wild prototypes

These are the original prototypes from which domesticated breeds are believed to have developed. Scholars debate if these were each wild prototypes within the ancient species Equus ferus or if they were the earliest domesticated landrace breeds.

  • "Warmblood subspecies" or Forest Horse, also called Diluvial horse (Equus ferus silvaticus)
  • "Oriental" subspecies, (Equus agilis), see also "Oriental horse" in "Modern Types," above
  • "Draft" subspecies

Extinct breeds

These were human-developed breeds, now no longer in existence

  • Norfolk Trotter, also called the Norfolk Roadster, Yorkshire Trotter or Yorkshire Roadster

  • Turkoman Horse also known as Turkemene. The Akhal-Teke may be a direct descendant.

References


External links

  • "Breeds of Livestock: Horse Breeds" Alphabetized list of horse breed articles maintained by the Department of Animal Science at Oklahoma State University. Accessed at: http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/horses/



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