Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe
|Group 1 race|
|Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe|
|Race type||Flat / Thoroughbred|
|Distance||2,400 metres (1½ miles)|
|Qualification||Three-years-old and up|
|Weight||56 kg (3yo); 59½ kg (4yo+)|
1½ kg for fillies and mares
1st: 57.14%, 2nd: 22.86%
3rd: 11.43%, 4th: 5.71%
The Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe is a Group 1 flat horse race in France which is open to thoroughbreds aged three years or older. It is run at Longchamp over a distance of 2,400 metres (about 1½ miles), and it is scheduled to take place each year, usually on the first Sunday in October.
Popularly referred to as the "Arc", it is the most prestigious horse race in Europe, and one of the most renowned international events in any sport. Many of its winners are subsequently regarded as champions, and its roll of honour features such highly acclaimed horses as Ribot, Sea Bird, Dancing Brave and Sea the Stars. It is currently the world's second richest horse race on turf, after the Japan Cup.
A slogan of the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, first used on a promotional poster in 2003, describes the event as "Ce n'est pas une course, c'est un monument" – "Not so much a race as a monument".
The former governing body of French racing, the Société d'Encouragement, had initially restricted its races to thoroughbreds which were born and bred in France. In 1863, however, it launched a new event, the Grand Prix de Paris, which was designed to bring together the best three-year-olds from any country. Thirty years later it introduced a second international event, the Prix du Conseil Municipal, which enabled the leading horses of different age groups to compete against each other. This race was run over 2,400 metres in October, and its conditions included "overweights and underweights", a handicap system based on the previous performances of the participating horses.
The creation of a third such race was proposed by the Société d'Encouragement at a committee meeting on January 24, 1920. The new event, like its predecessors, would take place at Longchamp. It was to be an international race to complement the Grand Prix de Paris, and it would serve as a showcase for French thoroughbred breeding. It would have similar characteristics to the Prix du Conseil Municipal, but unlike that event it would use the weight for age system, with each horse competing on equal terms, unpenalised for previous victories.
Coming in the wake of World War I, it was decided that the race would be named after the Arc de Triomphe, a famous monument in Paris which had been the scene of a victory parade by the Allies in 1919. The title Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe had been previously assigned to a minor event at Longchamp. Another suggested title had been the Prix de la Victoire.
The Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe was first run on Sunday October 3, 1920. The inaugural running was won by Comrade, a three-year-old colt owned by Evremond de Saint-Alary. The winner's prize was 150,000 francs.
The event secured state funding in 1935 by the means of a lottery, which awarded prizes according to the race result and the drawing of lots. The system was first used in 1936, and it continued until 1938. The "Arc" was cancelled twice during World War II, in 1939 and 1940. It was switched to Le Tremblay in 1943 and 1944, where it was run over 2,300 metres. It returned to Longchamp in 1945.
Government funding of the race resumed in 1949, with money obtained through the Loterie Nationale. Offering an attractive jackpot of 50 million francs, this enabled a rapid increase of the prizes for both the "Arc" and its supporting races. By the 1970s, however, the assistance of the lottery had diminished, and the system was finally discontinued after the 1982 running. Since then the "Arc" has had several sponsors, including Trusthouse Forte, CIGA Hotels and Groupe Lucien Barrière.
The present sponsor of the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe is the Qatar Racing and Equestrian Club (QREC). The sponsorship agreement between France Galop and the QREC was signed in Doha in 2008, and it covers the five runnings of the "Arc" from 2008 to 2012. As a result of this deal the prize fund of the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe was doubled from €2 million to €4 million. It has thus become the world's second richest turf race (after the Japan Cup), and the third richest overall, behind the Dubai World Cup. The purse for the whole weekend of the "Arc" meeting now stands at €6.7 million (about USD $10 million). It includes seven races classed at Group 1 level, and four with Group 2 status.
Most successful horse (2 wins):
- Ksar – 1921, 1922
- Motrico – 1930, 1932
- Corrida – 1936, 1937
- Tantieme – 1950, 1951
- Ribot – 1955, 1956
- Alleged – 1977, 1978
Leading jockey (4 wins):
- Jacques Doyasbère – Djebel (1942), Ardan (1944), Tantieme (1950, 1951)
- Freddy Head – Bon Mot (1966), San San (1972), Ivanjica (1976), Three Troikas (1979)
- Yves Saint-Martin – Sassafras (1970), Allez France (1974), Akiyda (1982), Sagace (1984)
- Pat Eddery – Detroit (1980), Rainbow Quest (1985), Dancing Brave (1986), Trempolino (1987)
Leading trainer (7 wins):
- André Fabre – Trempolino (1987), Subotica (1992), Carnegie (1994), Peintre Celebre (1997), Sagamix (1998), Hurricane Run (2005), Rail Link (2006)
Leading owner (6 wins):
- Marcel Boussac – Corrida (1936, 1937), Djebel (1942), Ardan (1944), Caracalla (1946), Coronation (1949)
|1920||Comrade||3||Frank Bullock||Peter Gilpin||Evremond de Saint-Alary||2:39.0|
|1921||Ksar||3||George Stern||Walter R. Walton||Mrs Edmond Blanc||2:34.8|
|1922||Ksar||4||Frank Bullock||Walter R. Walton||Mrs Edmond Blanc||2:38.8|
|1923||Parth||3||Frank O'Neill||James H. Crawford||A. Kingsley Macomber||2:38.2|
|1924||Massine||4||Albert Sharpe||Elijah Cunnington||Henry Ternynck||2:40.8|
|1925||Priori ||3||Marcel Allemand||Percy Carter||Gérard de Chavagnac||2:33.8|
|1926||Biribi||3||Domingo Torterolo||Juan Torterolo||Simon Guthmann||2:32.8|
|1927||Mon Talisman||3||Charles Semblat||Frank Carter||Edouard Martinez de Hoz||2:32.8|
|1928||Kantar||3||Arthur Esling||Richard Carver||Ogden L. Mills||2:38.8|
|1929||Ortello||3||Paolo Caprioli||Willy Carter||Giuseppe del Montel||2:42.8|
|1930||Motrico||5||Marcel Fruhinsholtz||Maurice d'Okhuysen||Max de Rivaud||2:44.8|
|1931||Pearl Cap||3||Charles Semblat||Frank Carter||Diana Esmond||2:38.8|
|1932||Motrico||7||Charles Semblat||Maurice d'Okhuysen||Max de Rivaud||2:44.6|
|1933||Crapom||3||Paolo Caprioli||Frederico Regoli||Mario Crespi||2:41.6|
|1934||Brantome||3||Charles Bouillon||Lucien Robert||Edouard A. de Rothschild||2:41.8|
|1935||Samos||3||Walter Sibbritt||Frank Carter||Evremond de Saint-Alary||2:42.6|
|1936||Corrida||4||Charlie Elliott||John E. Watts||Marcel Boussac||2:38.6|
|1937||Corrida||5||Charlie Elliott||John E. Watts||Marcel Boussac||2:33.9|
|1938||Eclair au Chocolat||3||Charles Bouillon||Lucien Robert||Edouard A. de Rothschild||2:39.8|
|no race 1939–40|
|1941||Le Pacha||3||Paul Francolon||John Cunnington||Philippe Gund||2:36.2|
|1942||Djebel||5||Jacques Doyasbère||Charles Semblat||Marcel Boussac||2:37.9|
|1943||Verso II ||3||Guy Duforez||Charles Clout||Hubert de Chambure||2:33.4|
|1944||Ardan ||3||Jacques Doyasbère||Charles Semblat||Marcel Boussac||2:35.0|
|1945||Nikellora||3||Rae Johnstone||René Pelat||Mrs Robert Patureau||2:34.8|
|1946||Caracalla||4||Charlie Elliott||Charles Semblat||Marcel Boussac||2:33.3|
|1947||Le Paillon||5||Fernand Rochetti||William Head||Lucienne Aurousseau||2:33.4|
|1948||Migoli||4||Charles Smirke||Frank Butters||HH Aga Khan III||2:31.6|
|1949||Coronation||3||Roger Poincelet||Charles Semblat||Marcel Boussac||2:33.2|
|1950||Tantieme||3||Jacques Doyasbère||François Mathet||François Dupré||2:34.2|
|1951||Tantieme||4||Jacques Doyasbère||François Mathet||François Dupré||2:32.8|
|1952||Nuccio||4||Roger Poincelet||Alec Head||HH Aga Khan III||2:39.8|
|1953||La Sorellina||3||Maurice Larraun||Etienne Pollet||Paul Duboscq||2:31.8|
|1954||Sica Boy||3||Rae Johnstone||Pierre Pelat||Mrs Jean Cochery||2:36.3|
|1955||Ribot||3||Enrico Camici||Ugo Penco||Mario della Rocchetta||2:35.6|
|1956||Ribot||4||Enrico Camici||Ugo Penco||Mario della Rocchetta||2:34.8|
|1957||Oroso||4||Serge Boullenger||Daniel Lescalle||Raoul Meyer||2:33.4|
|1958||Ballymoss||4||Scobie Breasley||Vincent O'Brien||John McShain||2:37.9|
|1959||Saint Crespin ||3||George Moore||Alec Head||Prince Aly Khan||2:33.3|
|1960||Puissant Chef||3||Maxime Garcia||C. W. Bartholomew||Henry Aubert||2:44.0|
|1961||Molvedo||3||Enrico Camici||Armando Maggi||Egidio Verga||2:38.4|
|1962||Soltikoff||3||Marcel Depalmas||René Pelat||Simone Del Duca||2:30.9|
|1963||Exbury||4||Jean Deforge||Geoffroy Watson||Guy de Rothschild||2:35.0|
|1964||Prince Royal||3||Roger Poincelet||Georges Bridgland||Rex C. Ellsworth||2:35.5|
|1965||Sea Bird||3||Pat Glennon||Etienne Pollet||Jean Ternynck||2:35.5|
|1966||Bon Mot||3||Freddy Head||William Head||Walter Burmann||2:39.8|
|1967||Topyo||3||Bill Pyers||C. W. Bartholomew||Suzy Volterra||2:38.2|
|1968||Vaguely Noble||3||Bill Williamson||Etienne Pollet||Wilma Franklyn||2:35.2|
|1969||Levmoss||4||Bill Williamson||Seamus McGrath||Seamus McGrath||2:29.0|
|1970||Sassafras||3||Yves Saint-Martin||François Mathet||Arpad Plesch||2:29.7|
|1971||Mill Reef||3||Geoff Lewis||Ian Balding||Paul Mellon||2:28.3|
|1972||San San||3||Freddy Head||Angel Penna, Sr.||Countess Batthyany||2:28.3|
|1973||Rheingold||4||Lester Piggott||Barry Hills||Henry Zeisel||2:35.8|
|1974||Allez France||4||Yves Saint-Martin||Angel Penna, Sr.||Daniel Wildenstein||2:36.9|
|1975||Star Appeal||5||Greville Starkey||Theo Grieper||Waldemar Zeitelhack||2:33.6|
|1976||Ivanjica||4||Freddy Head||Alec Head||Jacques Wertheimer||2:39.4|
|1977||Alleged||3||Lester Piggott||Vincent O'Brien||Robert Sangster||2:30.6|
|1978||Alleged||4||Lester Piggott||Vincent O'Brien||Robert Sangster||2:36.5|
|1979||Three Troikas||3||Freddy Head||Criquette Head||Ghislaine Head||2:28.9|
|1980||Detroit||3||Pat Eddery||Olivier Douieb||Robert Sangster||2:28.0|
|1981||Gold River||4||Gary W. Moore||Alec Head||Jacques Wertheimer||2:35.2|
|1982||Akiyda||3||Yves Saint-Martin||François Mathet||HH Aga Khan IV||2:37.0|
|1983||All Along||4||Walter Swinburn||Patrick Biancone||Daniel Wildenstein||2:28.1|
|1984||Sagace||4||Yves Saint-Martin||Patrick Biancone||Daniel Wildenstein||2:39.1|
|1985||Rainbow Quest ||4||Pat Eddery||Jeremy Tree||Khalid Abdullah||2:29.5|
|1986||Dancing Brave||3||Pat Eddery||Guy Harwood||Khalid Abdullah||2:27.7|
|1987||Trempolino||3||Pat Eddery||André Fabre||Moussac / McNall||2:26.3|
|1988||Tony Bin||5||John Reid||Luigi Camici||Veronica del Bono Gaucci||2:27.3|
|1989||Carroll House||4||Michael Kinane||Michael Jarvis||Antonio Balzarini||2:30.8|
|1990||Saumarez||3||Gérald Mossé||Nicolas Clément||McNall / Gretzky||2:29.8|
|1991||Suave Dancer||3||Cash Asmussen||John Hammond||Henri Chalhoub||2:31.4|
|1992||Subotica||4||Thierry Jarnet||André Fabre||Olivier Lecerf||2:39.0|
|1993||Urban Sea||4||Eric Saint-Martin||Jean Lesbordes||David Tsui||2:37.9|
|1994||Carnegie||3||Thierry Jarnet||André Fabre||Sheikh Mohammed||2:31.1|
|1995||Lammtarra||3||Frankie Dettori||Saeed bin Suroor||Saeed bin M. Al Maktoum||2:31.8|
|1996||Helissio||3||Olivier Peslier||Elie Lellouche||Enrique Sarasola||2:29.9|
|1997||Peintre Celebre||3||Olivier Peslier||André Fabre||Daniel Wildenstein||2:24.6|
|1998||Sagamix||3||Olivier Peslier||André Fabre||Jean-Luc Lagardère||2:34.5|
|1999||Montjeu||3||Michael Kinane||John Hammond||Michael Tabor||2:38.5|
|2000||Sinndar||3||Johnny Murtagh||John Oxx||HH Aga Khan IV||2:25.8|
|2001||Sakhee||4||Frankie Dettori||Saeed bin Suroor||Godolphin||2:36.1|
|2002||Marienbard||5||Frankie Dettori||Saeed bin Suroor||Godolphin||2:26.7|
|2003||Dalakhani||3||Christophe Soumillon||Alain de Royer-Dupré||HH Aga Khan IV||2:32.3|
|2004||Bago||3||Thierry Gillet||Jonathan Pease||Niarchos Family||2:25.0|
|2005||Hurricane Run||3||Kieren Fallon||André Fabre||Michael Tabor||2:27.4|
|2006||Rail Link||3||Stéphane Pasquier||André Fabre||Khalid Abdullah||2:26.3|
|2007||Dylan Thomas||4||Kieren Fallon||Aidan O'Brien||Magnier / Tabor||2:28.5|
|2008||Zarkava||3||Christophe Soumillon||Alain de Royer-Dupré||HH Aga Khan IV||2:28.8|
|2009||Sea the Stars||3||Michael Kinane||John Oxx||Christopher Tsui||2:26.3|
1 Cadum finished first in 1925, but he was relegated to second place following a Stewards' Inquiry.
2 The 1943 and 1944 editions were run at Le Tremblay over 2,300 metres.
3 Midnight Sun dead-heated for first in 1959, but he was placed second after a Stewards' Inquiry.
4 Sagace finished first in 1985, but he was demoted to second following a Stewards' Inquiry.
- Fastest winning time – 2m 24.6s – Peintre Celebre (1997)
- Widest margin of victory – 6 lengths – Ribot (1956), Sea Bird (1965), Sakhee (2001)
- Oldest winning horse – 7-years-old – Motrico (1932)
- Leading sire of Arc winners – Bruleur (4 wins) – Ksar (1921, 1922), Priori (1925), Samos (1935)
- Most runners – 30 in 1967 (the present maximum is 20)
- Fewest runners – 7 in 1941
- Fillies and mares – seventeen wins – Pearl Cap (1931), Samos (1935), Corrida (1936, 1937), Nikellora (1945), Coronation (1949), La Sorellina (1953), San San (1972), Allez France (1974), Ivanjica (1976), Three Troikas (1979), Detroit (1980), Gold River (1981), Akiyda (1982), All Along (1983), Urban Sea (1993), Zarkava (2008)
- The 1947 winner, Le Paillon, was a top class hurdler who was runner-up in that year's Champion Hurdle.
- Criquette Head-Maarek, the trainer of the 1979 winner Three Troikas, remains the only woman to have trained an Arc winner.
- The third-placed horse in 2006, Deep Impact, was later disqualified after testing positive for the banned substance ipratropium.
- Wins by country trained
- Flag of France France – (64 wins)
- Flag of United Kingdom Great Britain – (10) – Parth (1923), Migoli (1948), Mill Reef (1971), Rheingold (1973), Rainbow Quest (1985), Dancing Brave (1986), Carroll House (1989), Lammtarra (1995), Sakhee (2001), Marienbard (2002)
- Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland – (7) – Ballymoss (1958), Levmoss (1969), Alleged (1977, 1978), Sinndar (2000), Dylan Thomas (2007), Sea the Stars (2009)
- Flag of Italy Italy – (6) – Ortello (1929), Crapom (1933), Ribot (1955, 1956), Molvedo (1961), Tony Bin (1988)
- Flag of Germany Germany – (1) – Star Appeal (1975)
- Wins by country foaled
- Flag of France France – (44 wins)
- Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland – (17) – Parth (1923), Migoli (1948), Vaguely Noble (1968), Levmoss (1969), Rheingold (1973), Star Appeal (1975), Tony Bin (1988), Carroll House (1989), Carnegie (1994), Montjeu (1999), Sinndar (2000), Marienbard (2002), Dalakhani (2003), Hurricane Run (2005), Dylan Thomas (2007), Zarkava (2008), Sea the Stars (2009)
- Flag of the United States United States – (14) – Mill Reef (1971), San San (1972), Allez France (1974), Ivanjica (1976), Alleged (1977, 1978), Rainbow Quest (1985), Dancing Brave (1986), Trempolino (1987), Suave Dancer (1991), Urban Sea (1993), Lammtarra (1995), Peintre Celebre (1997), Sakhee (2001)
- Flag of United Kingdom Great Britain – (7) – Comrade (1920), Ballymoss (1958), Saint Crespin (1959), Prince Royal (1964), Akiyda (1982), Saumarez (1990), Rail Link (2006)
- Flag of Italy Italy – (6) – Ortello (1929), Crapom (1933), Nuccio (1952), Ribot (1955, 1956), Molvedo (1961)
- Winner's previous race (since 1980; won unless stated)
- Prix Niel – Trempolino, Carnegie, Helissio, Peintre Celebre (2nd), Sagamix, Montjeu, Sinndar, Dalakhani, Bago (3rd), Hurricane Run, Rail Link
- Prix Foy – Gold River (3rd), All Along (2nd), Sagace, Subotica (2nd)
- Irish Champion Stakes – Carroll House, Suave Dancer, Dylan Thomas, Sea the Stars
- Prix Vermeille – Detroit (3rd), Akiyda (2nd), Zarkava
- King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes – Rainbow Quest (3rd), Lammtarra
- Select Stakes – Dancing Brave
- Premio Federico Tesio – Tony Bin
- Prix du Prince d'Orange – Saumarez
- Prix Gontaut-Biron – Urban Sea
- International Stakes – Sakhee
- Grosser Preis von Baden – Marienbard
- Major races at the 2009 Arc meeting
- Prix de l'Abbaye, Prix Marcel Boussac, Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère, Prix de l'Opéra, Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Prix du Cadran
- france-galop.com – A Brief History: Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.
- horseracingintfed.com – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe (2009).
- pedigreequery.com – Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe – Longchamp.
- prixarcdetriomphe.com – Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.
- tbheritage.com – Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.