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Surra (from the Marathi sūra, meaning the sound of heavy breathing through nostrils, of imitative origin)[1] is a disease of vertebrate animals. The disease is caused by protozoan trypanosomes of several species which infect the blood of the vertebrate host, causing fever, weakness, and lethargy which lead to weight loss and anemia. In some animals the disease is fatal unless treated.


An acute form of the disease, which is generally fatal unless treated, occurs in horses, donkeys, mules, cattle, buffalo, deer, camels, llamas, dogs, and cats. This form is caused by Trypanosoma evansi (Steel 1885) Balbiani 1888, and is transmitted by horse-flies, and also by the vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, in South-America. This form occurs in South America, Northern Africa, and the Middle East. This was the first form of pathogenic trypanosome discovered and was first described by Griffith Evans in 1880 while working in India.

A chronic form of the disease, which is milder but persistent, occurs in pigs, sheep, and goats. This form is caused by Trypanosoma suis and is transmitted by tsetse. This form occurs in Africa.

On September 8, 2007, Veterinary officials in South Cotabato, Philippines said that laboratory tests on samples from cows, carabaos, and horses in the province's 10 towns and lone city showed the level of infection at 89.5%, a sudden increase of positive cases Fasciolosis or liver fluke disease among large livestock due to the erratic weather condition in the area. They must be treated forthwith to prevent complications with Surra and Hemorrhagic Septicemia diseases. Surra already affected all barangays of the Surallah town.[2]


  • Equine Centre, Werribee, Australia

Page on Surra Retrieved on 29 August 2005.

  • C. A. Hoare "Systematic Description of the Mammalian Trypanosomes of Africa" Chapter 2 in Mulligan, H. & Potts, W. (1970) The African Trypanosomiases London, UK: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.
  • L. Simpson "African Trypanosomiasis: Epidemiology and Life Cycle of Trypanosoma brucei" Lecture notes Retrieved on 29 August 2005.
  1. "surra". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. Bartleby.com. 2000. http://www.bartleby.com/61/83/S0918300.html. Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  2. GMA NEWS.TV, Rise in animal liver fluke cases alarms South Cotabato


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