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File:Paarden tandem.jpg
Ponies driving in tandem

Tandem (or in tandem) is an arrangement where a team of machines, animals or people are lined up one behind another, all facing in the same direction.[1]

Tandem harness (the original use of the term in English) is used for two or more draft horses (or other draft animals) harnessed in a single line one behind another, as opposed to a pair, harnessed side-by-side, or a team of several pairs. Tandem harness allows additional animals to provide pulling power for a vehicle designed for a single animal.

Tandem seating may be used in two-seat aircraft, or on a tandem bicycle. A tandem arrangement may also be used for cars parked in a garage.

The English word "tandem" derives from the Latin adverb tandem meaning "at length" or "finally".[2]

The term "tandem" can also be used more generally to refer to any group of persons or objects working together, not necessarily in line.[1]

File:Greek TF-102A Delta Dagger 1.JPG
TF-102A Delta Dagger converted from single to side-by-side cockpit



The two seating configurations for trainer aircraft are pilot and instructor side by side or in tandem, usually with the pilot in front and the instructor behind. A cockpit can be lengthened to create a trainer with tandem seating from a single seater aircraft.

Side-by-side seating

File:Hunter and meteor at kemble arp.jpg
Tandem seat Gloster Meteor and side-by-side seat Hawker Hunter (trainer)

An alternative configuration is side-by-side seating which is common in large aircraft, but uncommon in high performance jets such as the Grumman A-6 Intruder or the General Dynamics F-111. The side-by-side seating configuration has the advantage that pilot and instructor can see each others actions, allowing the pilot to learn from the instructor and the instructor to correct the student pilot. The tandem configuration has the advantage of being closer to the normal working environment that a fast jet pilot is likely to encounter.[3]

File:A-6B VA-75 CVA-60 1971.jpg
A-6 Intruder and EA-6B Prowler have a side-by-side seating cockpit

In some cases such as the EA-6B Prowler, a two-place aircraft can be modified to be made longer into a four-place aircraft. Also a single seat cockpit can be redesigned into a side-by-side arrangement in the case of the A-1 Skyraider, TF-102 trainer or the Hawker Hunter.

See also

  • Tandem language learning
  • Class 4 telephone switch or tandem switch
  • Semi-trailer, where multiple axles on a trailer are called "tandem axles".
  • In series, an arrangement of electrical circuit elements one after another.
  • Tandem-charge, an arrangement of two explosive charges one behind another in a projectile.
  • Tandem skydiving, two people skydive using one parachute


External links


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