|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Anthem: "God Save the Queen"
(and largest city)
|Official language(s)||English (de facto)|
|Recognised regional languages||Irish, Ulster Scots, Scottish Gaelic , Scots, Welsh, Cornish|
|Ethnic groups (2001
See: UK Ethnic groups list)
4.0% South Asian
|Government||Parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy|
|-||Monarch||Queen Elizabeth II|
|-||Prime Minister||Gordon Brown MP|
|Legislature||Parliament||-||Upper House||House of Lords</tr>|
|-||Lower House||House of Commons|
|-||Acts of Union 1707||1 May 1707|
|-||Act of Union 1800||1 January 1801|
|-||Anglo-Irish Treaty||12 April 1922|
|EU accession||1 January 1973|
|-||Total|| 244,820 km2 (79th)
94,526 sq mi
|-||2009 estimate||61,612,300 (22nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2008 estimate|
|-||Total||$2.230 trillion (7th)|
|-||Per capita||$36,523 (18th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2008 estimate|
|-||Total||$2.674 trillion (6th)|
|-||Per capita||$43,785 (20th)|
|HDI (2006)||0.942 (high) (21st)|
|Currency||Pound sterling (
|Time zone||GMT (UTC+0)|
|-||Summer (DST)||BST (UTC+1)|
|Drives on the||left|
|Internet TLD||.uk </div>|
|Rank||City||English Region/Country||Pop.||Rank||City||English Region/Country||Pop.|
|1||London||Greater London||7,172,091||11||Coventry||West Midlands||303,475|
|2||Birmingham||West Midlands||970,892||12||Kingston upon Hull||Yorkshire and the Humber||301,416|
|3||Glasgow||Scotland||629,501||13||Bradford||Yorkshire and the Humber||293,717|
|4||Liverpool||North West England||469,017||14||Cardiff||Wales||292,150|
|5||Leeds||Yorkshire and the Humber||443,247||15||Belfast||Northern Ireland||276,459|
|6||Sheffield||Yorkshire and the Humber||439,866||16||Stoke-on-Trent||West Midlands||259,252|
|8||Bristol||South West England||420,556||18||Nottingham||East Midlands||249,584|
|9||Manchester||North West England||394,269||19||Plymouth||South West England||243,795|
|10||Leicester||East Midlands||330,574||20||Southampton||South East England||234,224|
A Census occurs simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for collecting data for England and Wales with the General Register Office for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency each being responsible for censuses in their respective countries.
At the most recent census in 2001, the total population of the United Kingdom was 58,789,194, the third largest in the European Union, the fifth largest in the Commonwealth and the twenty-first largest in the world. By mid-2007, this was estimated to have grown to 60,975,000. Current population growth is mainly due to net immigration but a rising birth rate and increasing life expectancy have also contributed. The mid-2007 population estimates also revealed that, for the first time, the UK is now home to more people of pensionable age than children under the age of 16.
England's population by mid-2007 was estimated to be 51.1 million. It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with 383 people resident per square kilometre in mid-2003, with a particular concentration in London and the South East. The mid-2007 estimates put Scotland's population at 5.1 million, Wales at 3 million and Northern Ireland at 1.8 million with much lower population densities than England. Compared to England's 383 inhabitants per square kilometre (990 /sq mi), the corresponding figures were 142 /km2 (370 /sq mi) for Wales, 125 /km2 (320 /sq mi) for Northern Ireland and just 65 /km2 (170 /sq mi) for Scotland in mid-2003.
In 2007, the average total fertility rate (TFR) across the UK was 1.90 children per woman. It is estimated that in 2008, the fertility of England and Wales climbed to 1.95 children per woman as 709,000 babies were born that year in which a quarter was due to foreign mothers whose fertility rate sits at 2.2 children per woman, compared to the rate of 1.6 children that British born mothers averaged. While a rising birth rate is contributing to current population growth, it remains considerably below the 'baby boom' peak of 2.95 children per woman in 1964, below the replacement rate of 2.1, but higher than the 2001 record low of 1.63. Scotland had the lowest fertility at only 1.73 children per woman, while Northern Ireland had the highest at 2.02 children.
In contrast with some other European countries, immigration is contributing to a rising population, accounting for about half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001. Citizens of the European Union have the right to live and work in any member state and one in six immigrants were from Eastern European countries that joined the EU in 2004, with larger numbers coming from New Commonwealth countries, particularly South Asia. People from South Asia accounted for two-thirds of net immigration in 2005, mainly fueled by family reunion. Transitional arrangements apply to Romanians and Bulgarians whose countries joined the EU in January 2007. Official figures showed that 2.3 million net migrants have moved to Britain since 1997, 84% of them from outside Europe, and a further 7 million are expected by 2031, though these figures are disputed. The latest official figures show that net immigration to the UK in 2007 was 237,000, up from the 191,000 the previous year. Though the proportion of foreign-born people in the UK remains slightly below that of some other European countries, the actual number may almost double to 9.1 million over the next two decades. At the same time, due to emigration, at least 5.5 million British-born people are living abroad, with Australia, Spain, the United States, and Canada being the top four destinations.
In 2006, there were 149,035 applications for British citizenship, 32% fewer than in 2005. The number of people granted citizenship during 2006 was 154,095, 5% fewer than in 2005. The largest groups of people granted British citizenship were from India, Pakistan, Somalia and the Philippines. 21.9% of babies born in England and Wales in 2006 were born to mothers who were born outside the UK, (146,956 out of 669,601), according to official statistics released in 2007.
Figures published in August 2007 indicated that 682,940 people applied to the Worker Registration Scheme (for nationals of the central and eastern European states that joined the EU in May 2004) between 1 May 2004 and 30 June 2007, of whom 656,395 were accepted. Self-employed workers and people who are not working (including students) are not required to register under the scheme so this figure represents a lower limit on immigration inflow. These figures do not indicate the number of immigrants who have since returned home, but 56% of applicants in the 12 months ending 30 June 2007 reported planning to stay for a maximum of three months, with net migration in 2005 from the new EU states standing at 64,000. Research suggests that a total of around 1 million people had moved from the new EU member states to the UK by April 2008, but that half this number have since returned home or moved on to a third country. One in every four Poles in the UK planned to remain for life, a survey has revealed. The late-2000s recession in the UK reduced the economic incentive for Poles to migrate to the UK.
The UK government is currently introducing a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside of the European Economic Area that will replace existing schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.
Historically, British people were thought to be descended from the varied ethnic stocks that settled there before the 11th century; the Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans. However, recent genetic analysis indicates that around 80% of British DNA comes from an indigenous population who settled Britain around 12,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age, with subsequent invaders contributing very little to the genepool. Since 1945, substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire. Migration from new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe since 2004 has resulted in growth in these population groups, but, as of 2008, the trend is reversing and many of these migrants are returning home, leaving the size of these groups unknown. As of 2001, 92.1% of the population identified themselves as White, leaving 7.9% of the UK population identifying themselves as mixed race or ethnic minority.
|Ethnic group||Population||% of total*|
|White||54,153,898||92.1% </tr>||Black||1,148,738||2.0% </tr>||Mixed race||677,117||1.2% </tr>||Indian||1,053,411||1.8% </tr>||Pakistani||747,285||1.3% </tr>||Bangladeshi||283,063||0.5% </tr>||Other Asian (non-Chinese)||247,644||0.4% </tr>||Chinese||247,403||0.4% </tr>||Other||230,615||0.4% </tr>|
|* Percentage of total UK population|
Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. 30.4% of London's population and 37.4% of Leicester's was estimated to be non-white as of June 2005, whereas less than 5% of the populations of North East England, Wales and the South West were from ethnic minorities according to the 2001 census. As of 2007, 22% of primary and 17.7% of secondary pupils at state schools in England were from ethnic minority families.
The UK does not de jure have an official language but the predominant spoken language is English, a West Germanic language descended from Old English which features a large number of borrowings from Old Norse, Norman French and Latin. Largely due to the British Empire, the English language has spread across the world, and become the international language of business as well as the most widely taught second language. Scots, a language descended from early northern Middle English, is recognised at European level. There are also four Celtic languages in use in the UK: Welsh, Irish Gaelic (generally just referred to as Irish), Scottish Gaelic and Cornish. In the 2001 Census over a fifth (21%) of the population of Wales said they could speak Welsh, an increase from the 1991 Census (18%). In addition, it is estimated that about 200,000 Welsh speakers live in England. The 2001 census in Northern Ireland showed that 167,487 (10.4%) people "had some knowledge of Irish" (see Irish language in Northern Ireland), almost exclusively in the Catholic/nationalist population. Over 92,000 people in Scotland (just under 2% of the population) had some Gaelic language ability, including 72% of those living in the Outer Hebrides. The number of schoolchildren being taught in Welsh, Gaelic and Irish is increasing. Welsh and Scottish Gaelic are also spoken by small groups around the globe with some Gaelic still spoken in Nova Scotia, Canada, and Welsh in Patagonia, Argentina.
Across the United Kingdom, it is generally compulsory for pupils to study a second language to some extent: up to the age of 14 in England, and up to age 16 in Scotland. French and German are the two most commonly taught second languages in England and Scotland. In Wales, all pupils up to age 16 are either taught in Welsh or taught Welsh as a second language.
The Treaty of Union that led to the formation of the United Kingdom ensured that there would be a Protestant succession as well as a link between church and state that still remains. Christianity is the major religion, followed by Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and then Judaism in terms of number of adherents. The 2007 Tearfund Survey revealed 53% identified themselves as Christian which was similar to the 2004 British Social Attitudes Survey, and to the 2001 Census in which 71.6% said that Christianity was their religion, (though the latter used "a softer question".) However, the Tearfund survey showed only one in ten Britons actually attend church weekly.
There is also a large and growing atheist and agnostic population. In the 2001 census, 9.1 million (15% of the UK population) claimed no religion, with a further 4.3 million (7% of the UK population) not stating a religious preference. There is a disparity between the figures for those identifying themselves with a particular religion and for those proclaiming a belief in a God: a Eurobarometer poll conducted in 2005 showed that 38% of the respondents believed that "there is a God", 40% believed that "there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 20% said "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force"
Christianity is the main religion in England with the Church of England (Anglican) the Established Church: the church retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is a member of the church (required under Article 2 of the Treaty of Union) as well as its Supreme Governor. The Church of England also retains the right to draft legislative measures (related to religious administration) through the General Synod that can then be passed into law by Parliament. The Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales is the second largest Christian church with around five million members, mainly in England. There are also growing Orthodox, Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, with Pentecostal churches in England now third after the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church in terms of church attendance. Among the Pentecostal churches is Elim Pentecostal Church. Other Christian groups include Salvation Army, United Reformed Church, Assemblies of God, Plymouth Brethren, Baptist Union, Methodists, Congregationalists and house churches.
The presbyterian Church of Scotland (known informally as The Kirk), is recognised as the national church of Scotland and not subject to state control. The British monarch is an ordinary member and is required to swear an oath to "defend the security" of the church upon his or her accession. The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland is Scotland's second largest Christian church, representing a sixth of the population. The Scottish Episcopal Church, which is part of the Anglican Communion, dates from the final establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland in 1690, when it split from the Church of Scotland and is not a 'daughter church' of the Church of England. Further splits in the Church of Scotland, especially in the nineteenth century, led to the creation of various other Presbyterian churches in Scotland, including the Free Church of Scotland.
In the 1920s, the Church in Wales became independent from the Church of England and became 'disestablished' but remains in the Anglican Communion. Baptist Union of Wales, Methodism and the Presbyterian Church of Wales are present in Wales as well.
The main religious groups in Northern Ireland are organised on an all-Ireland basis. Though Protestants and Anglicans are in the overall majority, the Roman Catholic Church of Ireland is the largest single church. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland, closely linked to the Church of Scotland in terms of theology and history, is the second largest church followed by the Church of Ireland (Anglican) which was disestablished in the nineteenth century.
At the 2001 census, there were 1,536,015 Muslims in England and Wales, forming 3% of the population. Muslims in Scotland numbered 42,557 representing 0.84% of the population. There were a further 1,943 Muslims in Northern Ireland. The biggest groups of Muslims are of Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Indian origin. According to a Labour Force Survey estimate, the total number of Muslims in Great Britain in 2008 was 2,422,000.
Over 1 million people follow religions of Indian origin: 560,000 Hindus, 340,000 Sikhs with about 150,000 practising Buddhism. One non-governmental organisation estimates that there are 800,000 Hindus in the UK. Leicester houses one of the world's few Jain temples that are outside of India.
The UK economy is made up (in descending order of size) of the economies of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Based on market exchange rates, the United Kingdom is today the sixth largest economy in the world and the third largest in Europe after Germany and France.
The Industrial Revolution started in the United Kingdom with an initial concentration on heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining, steel production, and textiles. The empire created an overseas market for British products, allowing the UK to dominate international trade in the 19th century. However, as other nations industrialised, coupled with economic decline after two world wars, the United Kingdom began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy, but accounted for only one-sixth of national output in 2003. The British motor industry is a significant part of this sector, although it has diminished with the collapse of the MG Rover Group and most of the industry is foreign owned. Civil and defence aircraft production is led by the second largest defence contractor in the world, BAE Systems, and the continental European firm EADS, the owner of Airbus. Rolls-Royce holds a major share of the global aerospace engines market. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry is strong in the UK, with the world's second and sixth largest pharmaceutical firms (GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, respectively) being based in the UK.
The UK service sector, however, has grown substantially, and now makes up about 73% of GDP. The service sector is dominated by financial services, especially in banking and insurance. London is the world's largest financial centre with the London Stock Exchange, the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange, and the Lloyd's of London insurance market all based in the City of London. London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is the leader of the three "command centres" for the global economy (along with New York City and Tokyo). It has the largest concentration of foreign bank branches in the world. In the past decade, a rival financial centre in London has grown in the Docklands area, with the HSBC, the world's largest bank, and Barclays Bank relocating their head offices there. Many multinational companies that are not primarily UK-based have chosen to site their European or rest-of-world headquarters in London: an example is the US financial services firm Citigroup. The Scottish capital, Edinburgh, has one of the large financial centres of Europe and is the headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group, one of the world's largest banks.
Tourism is very important to the British economy. With over 27 million tourists arriving in 2004, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world. London, by a considerable margin, is the most visited city in the world with 15.6 million visitors in 2006, ahead of 2nd placed Bangkok (10.4 million visitors) and 3rd placed Paris (9.7 million).
The United Kingdom's agriculture sector accounts for only 0.9% of the country's GDP.
The UK has a small coal reserve along with significant, yet continuously declining natural gas and oil reserves. Over 400 million tonnes of proven coal reserves have been identified in the UK. In 2004, total UK coal consumption (including imports) was 61 million tonnes, allowing the UK to be self sufficient in coal for just over 6.5 years, although at present extraction rates it would take 20 years to mine. An alternative to coal-fired electricity generation is underground coal gasification (UCG). UGC involves injecting steam and oxygen down a borehole, which extracts gas from the coal and draws the mixture to the surface—a potentially very low carbon method of exploiting coal. Identified onshore areas that have the potential for UGC amount to between 7 billion tonnes and 16 billion tonnes. Based on current UK coal consumption, these volumes represent reserves that could last the UK between 200 and 400 years.
Government involvement throughout the economy is exercised by the Chancellor of the Exchequer (currently Alistair Darling) who heads HM Treasury, but the Prime Minister (currently The Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP), is First Lord of the Treasury; the Chancellor of the Exchequer is the Second Lord of the Treasury. In recent years, the UK economy has been managed in accordance with principles of market liberalisation and low taxation and regulation. Since 1997, the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the Bank of England, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Chancellor each year. The Scottish Government, subject to the approval of the Scottish Parliament, has the power to vary the basic rate of income tax payable in Scotland by plus or minus 3 pence in the pound, though this power has not yet been exercised.
The currency of the UK is the pound sterling, represented by the symbol £. The Bank of England is the central bank, responsible for issuing currency. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover the issue. The UK chose not to join the euro at the currency's launch, and the British Prime Minister, The Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP, has ruled out membership for the foreseeable future, saying that the decision not to join had been right for Britain and for Europe. The government of former Prime Minister Tony Blair had pledged to hold a public referendum for deciding membership should "five economic tests" be met. In 2005, more than half (55%) of the UK were against adopting the currency, while 30% were in favour.
On 23 January 2009, Government figures from the Office for National Statistics showed that the UK was officially in recession for the first time since 1991. It entered a recession in the final quarter of 2008, accompanied by rising unemployment which increased from 5.2% in May 2008 to 7.6% in May 2009. The unemployment rate among 18 to 24-year-olds has risen from 11.9% to 17.3%.
Each of the countries of the United Kingdom has a separate education system with power over education devolved to Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
Education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families and the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, though the day to day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of Local Authorities (previously named Local Education Authorities). Universal state education in England and Wales was introduced for primary level in 1870 and secondary level in 1900. Education is mandatory from ages five to sixteen (15 if born in late July or August). The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, only a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Despite a fall in actual numbers, the proportion of children in England attending private schools has risen to over 7%. Just over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools. State schools which are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to the most selective private schools: out of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in 2006 two were state-run grammar schools. England has some of the top universities in the world; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London and University College London are ranked in the global top 10 in the 2008 THES - QS World University Rankings. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated pupils in England 7th in the world for Maths, and 6th for Science. The results put England's pupils ahead of other European countries, including Germany and Scandinavian countries.
Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning, with day to day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities. Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education: the Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres; and Learning and Teaching Scotland provides advice, resources and staff development to the education community to promote curriculum development and create a culture of innovation, ambition and excellence. Scotland first legislated for compulsory education in 1496. The proportion of children in Scotland attending private schools is just over 4%, although it has been rising slowly in recent years. Scottish students who attend Scottish universities pay neither tuition fees nor graduate endowment charges as the fees were abolished in 2001 and the graduate endowment scheme was abolished in 2008.
Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education and the Minister for Employment and Learning, although responsibility at a local level is administered by five education and library boards, covering different geographical areas. The 'Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment (CCEA) is the body responsible for advising the government on what should be taught in Northern Ireland's schools, monitoring standards and awarding qualifications.
The National Assembly for Wales has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of 16. There are plans to increase the provision of Welsh Medium schools as part of the policy of having a fully bilingual Wales.
Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have separate systems with different policies and priorities though the degree of co-operation usually conceals the difference from cross-border users of the services. The four systems provide public healthcare to all UK permanent residents that is free at the point of need and paid for from general taxation. A much smaller private medical system also exists. Various regulatory bodies are organised on a UK-wide basis such as the General Medical Council, the Nursing and Midwifery Council and non-governmental-based (e.g. Royal Colleges). Across the UK, there is a large number of medical schools and dental schools, and a considerable establishment for training nurses and professions allied to medicine.
Healthcare in England is mainly provided by the National Health Service which today covers just England though originally it covered England and Wales. It was set up by the National Health Service Act 1946 that came into effect on 5 July 1948. The Department of Health exists to improve the health and wellbeing of people in England, and the Secretary of State for Health is answerable to the UK Parliament for its work and for the work of the NHS. England's NHS is one of the largest cohesive organisations of any type in the world employing over 1.3 million people. Public sector healthcare delivery consists of primary (general practice), secondary (district general hospital) and tertiary (teaching hospital) levels of service. There is considerable interaction and cross-flow between the various levels. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, or NICE, advises on whether drugs or treatments should be provided by the NHS in England and Wales.
Healthcare in Scotland is mainly provided by NHS Scotland, Scotland's public healthcare system. The service was founded by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947 (later repealed by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1978) that took effect on 5 July 1948 to coincide with the launch of the NHS in England and Wales. However, even prior to 1948, half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state funded healthcare, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service. In 2006, NHS Scotland employed around 158,000 staff including more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3,800 consultants. In addition, there were also more than 12,000 doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances. The Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing is responsible to the Scottish Parliament for the work of NHS Scotland.
Healthcare in Wales is mainly provided by NHS Wales. Originally formed as part of the same NHS structure created by the National Health Service Act 1946, power over the NHS in Wales was transferred to the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969. In turn, responsibility for NHS Wales was passed to the Welsh Assembly and Executive under devolution in 1999. NHS Wales provides public healthcare in Wales and employs some 90,000 staff, making it Wales’ biggest employer. The Minister for Health and Social Services is the person within the Welsh Assembly Government who holds cabinet responsibilities for both health and social care in Wales.
Healthcare in Northern Ireland is mainly provided by the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.
The Highways Agency is the executive agency responsible for trunk roads and motorways in England apart from the privately owned and operated M6 Toll. The Department for Transport states that traffic congestion is one of the most serious transport problems and that it could cost England an extra £22 billion in wasted time by 2025 if left unchecked. According to the government-sponsored Eddington report of 2006, congestion is in danger of harming the economy, unless tackled by road pricing and expansion of the transport network.
The Scottish transport network is the responsibility of the Scottish Government's Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department with Transport Scotland being the Executive Agency that is accountable to the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth for Scotland's trunk roads and rail networks. Scotland's rail network has around 340 railway stations and 3,000 kilometres of track with over 62 million passenger journeys made each year. In 2008, The Scottish Government set out investment plans for the next 20 years, with priorities to include a new Forth Road Bridge and electrification of the rail network.
Across the UK, there is a radial road network of 46,904 kilometres (29,145 mi) of main roads with a motorway network of 3,497 kilometres (2,173 mi). There are a further 213,750 kilometres (132,818 mi) of paved roads. The rail network of 16,116 km (10,072 miles) in Great Britain and 303 route km (189 route mi) in Northern Ireland carries over 18,000 passenger trains and 1,000 freight trains daily. Urban rail networks are well developed in London and other cities. There was once over 48,000 route km (30,000 route mi) of rail network in the UK, however most of this was reduced over a time period from 1955 to 1975, much of it after a report by a government advisor Richard Beeching in the mid 1960s (known as the Beeching Axe). Plans are now being considered to build new high speed lines by 2025.
British sport is often subdivided by nation into English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish and/or Irish bodies.
Major sports including association football, rugby football, boxing, badminton, cricket, tennis and golf originated, or were substantially developed, in the United Kingdom and the states that preceded it. A 2006 poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom.
In international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland in most team sports, as well as at the Commonwealth Games. (In sporting contexts, these teams can be referred to collectively as the Home Nations.) However, there are occasions where a single sports team represents the United Kingdom, including at the Olympics where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team.
Cricket is claimed to have been invented in England (though recent research suggests it was actually invented in Belgium) and the England cricket team, controlled by the England and Wales Cricket Board, is the only national team in the UK with Test status. Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players. Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, although Wales had fielded its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals. Scotland, England (and Wales), and Ireland (including Northern Ireland) have competed at the Cricket World Cup, with England reaching the Final three times. There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete.
Each of the home nations has its own football association, national team and league system, though a few clubs play outside their country's respective systems for a variety of historical and logistical reasons.
England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland compete as separate countries in international competition and, as a consequence, the UK does not compete as a single team in football events at the Olympic Games. There are proposals to have a UK team take part in the 2012 Summer Olympics but the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish football associations have declined to participate, fearing that it would undermine their independent status—a fear confirmed by FIFA president Sepp Blatter. England has been the most successful of the home nations, winning the World Cup on home soil in 1966, although there has historically been a close-fought rivalry between England and Scotland.
The English football league system includes hundreds of inter-linked leagues, consisting of thousands of divisions. The Premiership at the top, is the most-watched football league in the world and is particularly popular in Asia. Below this, The Football League has three divisions and then the Football Conference has a national division and two feeder regional leagues. Thereafter the structure becomes increasing regional. England is home to world-renowned football clubs such as Arsenal, Liverpool, Manchester United and Chelsea. English teams have been successful in European Competitions including some who have become European Cup/UEFA Champions League winners: Liverpool (five times), Manchester United (three times), Nottingham Forest (twice) and Aston Villa. More clubs from England have won the European Cup than any other country (four compared to three from Italy, Germany and the Netherlands). Moreover, England ranks second in the all time list of European club trophies won with 35, one behind Italy's 36. The European Cup competition itself came about as the result of the success of another English club, Wolverhampton Wanderers, against top European sides in the 1950s. The 90,000-capacity Wembley Stadium is England's principal sporting stadium.
The Scottish football league system has two national leagues: the Scottish Premier League, the top division, and the Scottish Football League, which has three divisions. Below this, but not connected to the national leagues, are three regional leagues; the Highland Football League, the East of Scotland Football League and the South of Scotland Football League. One English club, Berwick Rangers, plays in the Scottish system. Scotland is home to two world-renowned football clubs in the Old Firm of Celtic and Rangers. Scottish teams that have been successful in European Competitions include Celtic (European Cup in 1967), Rangers (European Cup Winners' Cup in 1972) and Aberdeen (European Cup Winners' Cup and European Super Cup in 1983). Celtic were the first British club to win the European Cup.
The Welsh football league system includes the Welsh Premier League and regional leagues. Welsh Premiership club The New Saints play their home matches on the English side of the border in Oswestry. The Welsh clubs of Cardiff City F.C., Colwyn Bay F.C., Merthyr Tydfil F.C., Newport County A.F.C., Swansea City A.F.C. and Wrexham F.C. play in the English system. Cardiff's 76,250 seater Millennium Stadium is the principal sporting stadium of Wales.
Rugby league is played as a developing sport throughout the UK, but in Northern England, it is the main sport in many areas, particularly in Yorkshire, Cumbria and Lancashire in towns such as Wigan and St Helens. It also has a substantial presence in London and South Wales.
It originates from and is generally played in Northern England and a single 'Great Britain Lions' team had competed in the Rugby League World Cup and Test match games, but this changed slightly in 2008 when England, Scotland and Ireland competed as separate nations.
Great Britain is still being retained as the full national team for Ashes tours against, Australia, New Zealand and France.
Rugby union is played as a minority sport throughout the UK, but has a number of heartlands, notably South Wales, the Scottish Borders, the English West Country and so on. It also has a substantial presence in Northern Ireland (RU is organised on an all-Ireland basis), Edinburgh, London, Leicester etc.
The game of tennis first originated from the city of Birmingham between 1859 and 1865. The Championships, Wimbledon are international tennis events held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and are regarded as the most prestigious event of the global tennis calendar.
Thoroughbred racing, which originated under Charles II of England as the "sport of kings", is popular throughout the UK with world-famous races including the Grand National, the Epsom Derby and Royal Ascot. The town of Newmarket is considered the centre of English racing, largely due to the famous Newmarket Racecourse.
The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. It is widely considered that the sport's most successful rower is Steve Redgrave who won five gold medals and one bronze medal at five consecutive Olympic Games, as well as numerous wins at the World Rowing Championships and Henley Royal Regatta.
Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the UK. Although The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, in Scotland, is the sport's home course, the world's oldest golf course is actually Musselburgh Links' Old Golf Course.
Shinty (or camanachd) is popular in the Scottish Highlands, sometimes attracting crowds numbering thousands in the most sparsely populated region of the UK, especially to watch the final of its premier tournament, the Camanachd Cup.
The UK is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One (F1) are based in the UK and drivers from Britain have won more world titles than any other country. The country hosts legs of the F1 and World Rally Championship and has its own touring car racing championship, the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC). The British Grand Prix takes place at Silverstone each July.
The culture of the United Kingdom—British culture— may be described as informed by its history as a developed island country, major power, and also as a political union of four countries, with each preserving elements of distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism. As a result of the British Empire, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies such as Canada, Australia, India, and the United States.
The United Kingdom has been influential in the development of cinema, with the Ealing Studios claiming to be the oldest studios in the world. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry is characterised by an ongoing debate about its identity, and the influences of American and European cinema. Particularly between British and American film, many films are often co-produced or share actors with many British actors now featuring regularly in Hollywood films. The BFI Top 100 British films is a poll conducted by the British Film Institute which ranks what they consider to be the 100 greatest British films of all time.
'British literature' refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands as well as to literature from England, Wales and Scotland prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. Most British literature is in the English language.
The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time. Among the earliest English writers are Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), Thomas Malory (15th century), Sir Thomas More (16th century), and John Milton (17th century). In the 18th century, Samuel Richardson is often credited with inventing the modern novel. In the 19th century, there followed further innovation by Jane Austen, the gothic novelist Mary Shelley, children's writer Lewis Carroll, the Brontë sisters, the social campaigner Charles Dickens, the naturalist Thomas Hardy, the visionary poet William Blake and romantic poet William Wordsworth. Twentieth century writers include the science fiction novelist H. G. Wells, writers of children's classics Rudyard Kipling, A. A. Milne, the controversial D. H. Lawrence, the modernist Virginia Woolf, the satirist Evelyn Waugh, the prophetic novelist George Orwell, the popular novelist Graham Greene, crime novelist Agatha Christie, and the poets Ted Hughes and John Betjeman. Most recently, the children's fantasy Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling has recalled the popularity of J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis.
Scotland's contribution includes the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle, romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott, children's writer J. M. Barrie and the epic adventures of Robert Louis Stevenson. It has also produced the celebrated poet Robert Burns, as well as William McGonagall, regarded by many as one of the world's worst. More recently, the modernist and nationalist Hugh MacDiarmid and Neil M. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks. Scotland's capital, Edinburgh, is UNESCO's first worldwide city of literature.
The oldest known poem from the area now known as Scotland, Y Gododdin, was composed in Cumbric or Old Welsh in the late sixth century and contains the earliest known reference to King Arthur. A great role in the development of Arthurian legend, and early development of British history, was played by Geoffrey of Monmouth. The greatest Welsh poet of all time is generally held to be Dafydd ap Gwilym. Owing to the dominance of the Welsh language in Wales until the late nineteenth century, the majority of Welsh literature was in Welsh, and much of the prose was religious in character; the nineteenth-century writer Daniel Jones is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist. In the twentieth century, the poets R. S. Thomas and Dylan Thomas became well known for their English-language poetry, Richard Llewellyn and children's works by Roald Dahl. Modern writers in Welsh include Kate Roberts.
Authors from other nationalities, particularly from Ireland, or from Commonwealth countries, have lived and worked in the UK. Significant examples through the centuries include Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Conrad, T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound, and more recently British authors born abroad such as Kazuo Ishiguro and Sir Salman Rushdie.
In theatre, Shakespeare's contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson added depth. More recently Alan Ayckbourn, Harold Pinter, Michael Frayn, Tom Stoppard and David Edgar have combined elements of surrealism, realism and radicalism.
The prominence of the English language gives the UK media a widespread international dimension.
There are five major nationwide television channels in the UK: BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4 and Five—currently transmitted by analogue terrestrial, free-to-air signals with the latter three channels funded by commercial advertising. In Wales, S4C the Welsh Fourth Channel replaces Channel 4, carrying Welsh language programmes at peak times. It also transmits Channel 4 programmes at other times.
The BBC is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates several television channels and radio stations in both the UK and abroad. The BBC's international television news service, BBC World News, is broadcast throughout the world and the BBC World Service radio network is broadcast in thirty-three languages globally, as well as services in Welsh on BBC Radio Cymru and programmes in Gaelic on BBC Radio nan Gàidheal in Scotland and Irish in Northern Ireland.
The domestic services of the BBC are funded by the television licence. The BBC World Service Radio is funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the television stations are operated by BBC Worldwide on a commercial subscription basis over cable and satellite services. It is this commercial arm of the BBC that forms half of UKTV along with Virgin Media.
The UK now has a large number of digital terrestrial channels including a further six from the BBC, five from ITV and three from Channel 4, and one from S4C which is solely in Welsh, among a variety of others.
The vast majority of digital cable television services are provided by Virgin Media with satellite television available from Freesat or British Sky Broadcasting and free-to-air digital terrestrial television by Freeview. The entire UK will switch to digital by 2012.
Radio in the UK is dominated by BBC Radio, which operates ten national networks and over forty local radio stations. The most popular radio station, by number of listeners, is BBC Radio 2, closely followed by BBC Radio 1. There are hundreds of mainly local commercial radio stations across the country offering a variety of music or talk formats.
The Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom is .uk. However, a Scottish Government working group is making preparations to bid to create a Scottish web domain—".sco" or ".scot"—in 2009.
Traditionally, British newspapers could be split into quality, serious-minded newspaper (usually referred to as "broadsheets" due to their large size) and the more populist, tabloid varieties. For convenience of reading, many traditional broadsheets have switched to a more compact-sized format, traditionally used by tabloids. The Sun has the highest circulation of any daily newspaper in the UK: 3.1 million, approximately a quarter of the market. Its sister paper, the News of the World has the highest circulation in the Sunday newspaper market, and traditionally focuses on celebrity-led stories. The Daily Telegraph, a right wing broadsheet paper, is the highest-selling of the "quality" newspapers. The Guardian is a more liberal "quality" broadsheet and the Financial Times is the main business newspaper, printed on distinctive salmon-pink broadsheet paper.
First printed in 1737, The News Letter from Belfast, is the oldest known English-language daily newspaper still in publication today. One of its fellow Northern Irish competitors, The Irish News, has been twice ranked as the best regional newspaper in the United Kingdom, in 2006 and 2007.
Scotland has a distinct tradition of newspaper readership (see list of newspapers in Scotland). The tabloid Daily Record has the highest circulation of any daily newspaper outselling the Scottish Sun by four to one while its sister paper, the Sunday Mail similarly leads the Sunday newspaper market. The leading "quality" daily newspaper in Scotland is The Herald, though it is the sister paper of The Scotsman, the Scotland on Sunday, that leads in the Sunday newspaper market.
Prominent British contributors to have influenced popular music over the last 50 years include The Beatles, Queen, AC/DC, Bee Gees, Cliff Richard, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and The Rolling Stones, all of whom have world wide record sales of 200 million or more.  The Beatles have international record sale of more than one billion. According to research by Guinness World Records, eight of the ten acts with the most UK chart singles are British: Status Quo, Queen, The Rolling Stones, UB40, Depeche Mode, the Bee Gees, the Pet Shop Boys and the Manic Street Preachers.
Notable composers of classical music from the United Kingdom and the countries that preceded it include William Byrd, Henry Purcell, Sir Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with librettist Sir W. S. Gilbert), Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Benjamin Britten, pioneer of modern British opera. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies is one of the foremost living composers and current Master of the Queen's Music. The UK is also home to world-renowned symphonic orchestras and choruses such as the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus. Notable conductors include Sir Simon Rattle, John Barbirolli and Sir Malcolm Sargent. Some of the notable film score composers include John Barry, Clint Mansell, Mike Oldfield, John Powell, Craig Armstrong, David Arnold, John Murphy, Monty Norman and Harry Gregson Williams. George Frederik Handell although born German is considered to have died British (sinilar to the Kings at the rime) as some of his best works were written in the English Language for the British People such as the Messiah.
A number of UK cities are known for their music scenes. Acts from Liverpool have had more UK chart number one hit singles (54) per capita than any other city worldwide. Glasgow's contribution to the music scene was recognised in 2008 when it was named a UNESCO City of Music, one of only three cities in the world to have this honour.
The United Kingdom is famous for the tradition of "British Empiricism", a branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and "Scottish Philosophy", sometimes referred to as the ‘Scottish School of Common Sense’. The most famous philosophers of British Empiricism are John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume (who was himself Scottish), while Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid and William Hamilton were major exponents of the Scottish “common sense” school. Britain is also notable for a theory of moral philosophy, Utilitarianism, first used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill, in his short work Utilitarianism.
Other eminent philosophers from the UK and the states that preceded it include Duns Scotus, John Lilburne, Mary Wollstonecraft, William of Ockham, Thomas Hobbes, Bertrand Russell, Adam Smith and Alfred Ayer. Foreign-born philosophers who settled in the UK include Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, and Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Science, engineering and innovation
The United Kingdom and the countries that preceded it have produced scientists and engineers credited with important advances, including;
- The invention of the incandescent light bulb, by Joseph Swan
- The modern scientific method, developed by English philosopher Francis Bacon
- The laws of motion and illumination of gravity, by English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, Sir Isaac Newton
- The unification of electromagnetism, by James Clerk Maxwell
- The discovery of hydrogen, by Henry Cavendish
- The steam locomotive, by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian
- The world's first working television system, and colour television, by Scottish engineer and inventor John Logie Baird
- The invention of the jet engine, by Frank Whittle
- Evolution by natural selection, by Charles Darwin
- The Turing machine, by Alan Turing, the basis of modern computer
- The invention of the hovercraft, by Christopher Cockerell
- The development of the world's first supersonic airliner, Concorde, by British Aircraft Corporation
- The electric motor, by Michael Faraday, who largely made electricity viable for use in technology
- First practical telephone, by Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell
- The structure of DNA, by Francis Crick and others
- The invention of the World Wide Web, by Tim Berners-Lee
- Logarithms by Scottish mathematician John Napier
- The discovery of penicillin, by Scottish biologist and pharmacologist, Sir Alexander Fleming
Notable civil engineering projects, whose pioneers included Isambard Kingdom Brunel, contributed to the world's first national railway transport system. Other advances pioneered in the UK include the marine chronometer, the jet engine, the modern bicycle, electric lighting, the steam turbine, stereo sound, motion picture, the screw propeller, the internal combustion engine, military radar, electronic computer, aeronautics, soda water, nursing, antiseptic surgery, vaccination and antibiotics.
Scientific journals produced in the UK include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet. In 2006, it was reported that the UK provided 9 per cent of the world's scientific research papers and a 12 per cent share of citations, the second highest in the world after the US.
The Royal Academy is located in London. Other major schools of art include the Slade School of Fine Art; the six-school University of the Arts London, which includes the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and Chelsea College of Art and Design; the Glasgow School of Art, and Goldsmiths, University of London. This commercial venture is one of Britain's foremost visual arts organisations. Major British artists include Sir Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable, William Blake, J. M. W. Turner, William Morris, L. S. Lowry, Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, David Hockney, Gilbert and George, Richard Hamilton, Peter Blake, Howard Hodgkin, Antony Gormley, and Anish Kapoor. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the Saatchi Gallery in London brought to public attention a group of multigenre artists who would become known as the Young British Artists. Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili, Rachel Whiteread, Tracey Emin, Mark Wallinger, Steve McQueen, Sam Taylor-Wood, and the Chapman Brothers are among the better known members of this loosely affiliated movement.
The flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Flag. It was created by the superimposition of the Flag of England, the Flag of Scotland and Saint Patrick's Flag in 1801. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. However, the possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out. The national anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King", with "King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics whenever the monarch is a woman. The anthem's name remains "God Save the King".
Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain. Britannia is symbolised as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. She holds Poseidon's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding the back of a lion. At and since the height of the British Empire, Britannia has often associated with maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song Rule, Britannia!. The lion symbol is depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and one is shown crowned on the back of the British ten pence coin. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.
Within the United Kingdom
|Flag of England||England||St. George||Tudor rose|
|Flag of Scotland||Scotland||St. Andrew||Thistle|
|Flag of Wales||Wales||St. David||Leek/Daffodil|
|Northern Ireland||St. Patrick||Flax/Shamrock|
There is no official National flag of Northern Ireland following the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973 or any unofficial flag universally supported in Northern Ireland. The use of various flags in Northern Ireland is contentious. However, the Ulster Banner is often used for sporting events. See Northern Ireland flags issue and The Union Flags and flags of the United Kingdom</div>
Notes and references
- ↑ It serves as the de facto National Anthem as well as being the Royal anthem for several other countries.
- ↑ English is established by de facto usage. In Wales, the Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg is legally tasked with ensuring that, "in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice, the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis of equality". "Welsh Language Act 1993". Office of Public Sector Information. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1993/Ukpga_19930038_en_2.htm. Retrieved 3 September 2007. . Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked with "securing the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland commanding equal respect to the English language" "Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005". Office of Public Sector Information. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/acts2005/asp_20050007_en_1. Retrieved 9 March 2007.
- ↑ Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages the Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Cornish, Irish, Ulster Scots and Scots languages are officially recognised as Regional or Minority languages by the UK Government ("European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Scottish Executive. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/ArtsCulture/gaelic/gaelic-english/17910/europeancharter. Retrieved 23 August 2007. ) See also Languages in the United Kingdom.
- ↑ "United Kingdom population by ethnic group". United Kingdom Census 2001. Office for National Statistics. 2001-04-01. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D6588.xls. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
- ↑ "Eurostat estimate". http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/PGP_PRD_CAT_PREREL/PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2008/PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2008_MONTH_12/3-15122008-EN-AP.PDF. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- ↑ Population Estimates at www.statistics.gov.uk
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 "United Kingdom". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=68&pr.y=19&sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=112&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 "The World Factbook - United Kingdom". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html#Econ. Retrieved 23 September 2008.
- ↑ HDI of United Kingdom. The United Nations. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- ↑ The Euro is accepted in many payphones and some larger shops.
- ↑ British dependencies drive on the left except for BIOT and Gibraltar.
- ↑ ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 states that this should be GB, but .gb is practically unused. The .eu domain is shared with other European Union member states.
- ↑ In the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, the UK's official name is as follows:
- Cornish: Rywvaneth Unys Breten Veur ha Kledhbarth Iwerdhon;
- Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann;
- Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Irland;
- Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn Mhòir agus Èireann a Tuath;
- Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
- ↑ See Terminology of the British Isles for further explanation of the usage of the term "Britain" in geographical and political contexts.
- ↑ "Encyclopaedia Britannica". http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/615557/United-Kingdom. Retrieved 2007-09-25. "Island country located off the north-western coast of mainland Europe"
- ↑ "Countries within a country". www.number-10.gov.uk. http://www.number10.gov.uk/Page823. Retrieved 2007-06-13. "Countries within a country"
- ↑ "UK Region – Northern Ireland - UK". Ukinvest.gov.uk. http://www.ukinvest.gov.uk/Northern-Ireland/en-GB-list.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- ↑ Published: 9:05PM BST 24 Jul 2008 (2008-07-24). "Border checks between Britain and Ireland proposed". Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2455710/Border-checks-between-Britain-and-Ireland-proposed.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- ↑ "The Countries of the UK". www.statistics.gov.uk. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/geography/uk_countries.asp. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- ↑ "Key facts about the United Kingdom". Government, citizens and rights. Directgov. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Governmentcitizensandrights/LivingintheUK/DG_10012517. Retrieved 2008-06-26. "The full title of this country is 'the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland'. 'The UK' is made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. 'Great Britain' (or just 'Britain') does not include Northern Ireland. The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK."
- ↑ "FCO global network". FCO in Action. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/fco-in-action/global-network/. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- ↑ "Industrial Revolution". http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/eae/Global_Warming/Older/Industrial_Revolution.html. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
- ↑ Ferguson, Niall (2004). Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books. ISBN 0465023282.
- ↑ "Welcome". www.parliament.uk. http://www.parliament.uk/actofunion/. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
- ↑ "The treaty or Act of the Union". www.scotshistoryonline.co.uk. http://www.scotshistoryonline.co.uk/union.html. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
- ↑ "Articles of Union with Scotland 1707". www.parliament.uk. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/citizenship/rise_parliament/docs/articles_union.htm. Retrieved 19October 2008.
- ↑ "The Act of Union". Act of Union Virtual Library. http://www.actofunion.ac.uk/actofunion.htm#act. Retrieved 15 May 2006.
- ↑ Ross, David (2002). Chronology of Scottish History. Geddes & Grosset. p. 56. ISBN 1855343800. "1603: James VI becomes James I of England in the Union of the Crowns, and leaves Edinburgh for London"
- ↑ Hearn, Jonathan (2002). Claiming Scotland: National Identity and Liberal Culture. Edinburgh University Press. p. 104. ISBN 1902930169. "Inevitably, James moved his court to London"
- ↑ Ferguson, Niall (2003). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order. Basic Books. ISBN 0465023282.
- ↑ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore BBC
- ↑ SR&O 1921, No. 533 of 3 May 1921
- ↑ "The Anglo-Irish Treaty, 6 December 1921". CAIN. http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/politics/docs/ait1921.htm. Retrieved 15 May 2006.
- ↑ "Modest progress but always on back foot". Times Online. 21 December 2005. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article775115.ece. Retrieved 16 May 2006.
- ↑ "Foreign Affairs and Europe". Conservative Party. http://www.conservatives.com/Policy/Where_we_stand/Foreign_Affairs_and_Europe.aspx. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- ↑ Keating, Michael (01 Jan 1998), "Reforging the Union: Devolution and Constitutional Change in the United Kingdom", Publius: the Journal of Federalism 28 (1): 217, http://publius.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/28/1/217, retrieved 2009-02-04
- ↑ Sarah Carter. "A Guide To the UK Legal System". University of Kent at Canterbury. http://www.llrx.com/features/uk2.htm#UK%20Legal%20System. Retrieved 16 May 2006.
- ↑ "Official UK Parliament web page on parliamentary sovereignty". http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/laws/sovereignty.cfm.
- ↑ "Brown is UK's new prime minister". BBC News (news.bbc.co.uk). 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6245682.stm. Retrieved 2008.
- ↑ Westminster Parliamentary Constituencies statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 October, 2008.
- ↑ However, the current five Sinn Féin MPs have since 2002 made use of the offices and other facilities available at Westminster."Sinn Fein moves into Westminster". BBC. 21 January 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/1771635.stm. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- ↑ European Election: United Kingdom Result BBC News, 8 June, 2009
- ↑ "Europe Wins The Power To Jail British Citizens". The Times. 14 September 2005. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article566322.ece. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- ↑ "Scots MPs attacked over fees vote". BBC News. 27 January 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/3432767.stm. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ "UK Politics: Talking Politics The West Lothian Question". BBC News. 1 June 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/talking_politics/82358.stm. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ "Scotland's Parliament - powers and structures". BBC News. 8 April 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/events/scotland_99/the_scottish_parliament/310036.stm. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ "Salmond elected as first minister". BBC News. 16 May 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/6659531.stm. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ "Devolution review body launched". BBC News. 25 March 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/7311840.stm. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ 'Radical' Holyrood powers urged BBC News, 15 June 2009
- ↑ "Structure and powers of the Assembly". BBC News. 9 April 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/events/wales_99/the_welsh_assembly/309033.stm. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ "What powers does the Welsh Assembly have?". Guardian. 16 July 2007. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2007/jul/16/wales.devolution. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ "Devolved Government - Ministers and their departments". Northern Ireland Executive. http://www.northernireland.gov.uk/index/your-government/devolved-government.htm. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- ↑ Barlow, I., Metropolitan Government, (1991)
- ↑ "Welcome to the national site of the Government Office Network". gos.gov.uk. http://www.gos.gov.uk/national/. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
- ↑ "A short history of London government". www.london.gov.uk. http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/city-government/history.jsp. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- ↑ "The Government is now expected to tear up its twelve-year-old plan to create eight or nine regional assemblies in England to mirror devolution in Scotland and Wales.""Prescott's dream in tatters as North East rejects assembly". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article503255.ece. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
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- ↑ "NI local government set for shake-up". BBC. 18 November 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/4449092.stm. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
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- ↑ "Local Government elections to be aligned with review of public administration". www.nio.gov.uk. http://www.nio.gov.uk/local-government-elections-to-be-aligned-with-review-of-public-administration/media-detail.htm?newsID=15153. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
- ↑ "STV in Scotland:Local Government Elections 2007" (PDF). Political Studies Association. http://www.psa.ac.uk/2007/pps/Bennie.pdf. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
- ↑ Ethical Standards in Public Life framework: "Ethical Standards in Public Life". The Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Government/local-government/ethical-standards. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- ↑ "About COSLA". cosla.gov.uk. http://www.cosla.gov.uk/index.asp?leftId=10001D0EF-10766726. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
- ↑ Local Authorities "Local Authorities in Wales". new.wales.gov.uk. http://new.wales.gov.uk/topics/localgovernment/localauthorities/?lang=en Local Authorities. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
- ↑ Local government elections in Wales "How do I vote?". www.aboutmyvote.co.uk. http://www.aboutmyvote.co.uk/how_do_i_vote/voting_systems/local_government_elections_i-3.aspx Local government elections in Wales. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
- ↑ "Welsh Local Government Association". Welsh Local Government Association. http://www.wlga.gov.uk/. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
- ↑ "Global Power Europe". Globalpowereurope.eu. http://www.globalpowereurope.eu/. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- ↑ "Defence Spending". MOD. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/AboutDefence/Organisation/KeyFactsAboutDefence/DefenceSpending.htm. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
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- ↑ "Status Quo hold UK singles record". BBC News. 2005-09-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/4259312.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
- ↑ Hughes, Mark (2008-01-14). "A tale of two cities of culture: Liverpool vs Stavanger". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/a-tale-of-two-cities-of-culture-liverpool-vs-stavanger-770076.html?r=RSS. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
- ↑ "Glasgow gets city of music honour". BBC News. 2008-08-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/7570915.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
- ↑ MacLeod, Donald (2006-03-21). "Britain second in world research rankings". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2006/mar/21/highereducation.uk4. Retrieved 2006-05-14.
- ↑ "Welsh dragon call for Union flag". BBC. 27 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7114248.stm. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- ↑ "Britannia on British Coins". Chard. http://www.24carat.co.uk/britanniaframe.html. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
- ↑ Baker, Steve (2001). Picturing the Beast. University of Illinois Press. pp. 52. ISBN 0252070305.
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